Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit
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NO. 108244

Nitrogen mineralization from legume tree prunings in an acid ultisol: I. Effects of quality of the prunings and incubation method


Handayanto, E
Faculty of Agriculture; Brawijaya University; Malang; East Java; Indonesia

Agrivita 18 (3): 95-105 (1995)

Abstract:
Nitrogen mineralization of legume tree prunings in relation to N, lignin, and polyphenol concentrations of the prunings was measured by using two methods, i.e. incubation of pruning materials in litterbags and incubation in pots due to application to an acid ultisol. A protein binding capacity assay was used to measure the content of active polyphenols in pruning materials in relation to their effects on decomposition. Prunings of Calliandra calothyrsus, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and a mixture of Peltophorum and Gliricidia from an alley cropping experiment in Lampung were used for the study. Decomposition and N release rates of the prunings were in the order: Gliricidia > Leucaena > Calliandra > Peltophorum in all two incubation methods, however, the patterns of N release varied between incubation methods and species. The (lignin + polyphenol): N ratio was consistent among the best quality description to predict weight losses and N released from the pruning in the litterbag experiment but not in the pot experiment. In the latter the lack of good correlation with quality factors may be due to the presence of soluble polyphenols with greater capacity to bind protein under non-leaching conditions.

Availability :
Library; Research Institute for Vegetable; Jl. Tangkuban Perahu No. 517; P.O. Box 8413 Lembang; Bandung 40391; Indonesia; phone: (62) (22) 2786 245; fax: (62) (22) 2786 416, 2786 025




NO. 296

The potential of several species of Leguminosae as fuel plants
Potensi beberapa jenis suku Leguminosae sebagai kayu bakar

Roemantyo
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Kebun Raya [Botanical Gardens of Indonesia Bulletin] 5 (6): 149-152 (1982)

Abstract:
With 690 genera and 18,000 species, the legume family is one of the largest family among the angiosperms. Many of them are known to have economic potential which can be exploited for various purposes, such as food, timber, feed and firewoods. The potential of 8 species of legumes belonging to 6 genera (Acacia, Albizia, Cajanus, Calliandra, Gliricidia and Leucaena) as sources of energy was explained.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 92403

Tree volume, yield and economic rotation of 'kaatoan bangkal' (Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) Rich. ex Walp. plantations in Nasipit Lumber Company Tungao, Butuan City


Cacanindin, DC
North Central Mindanao Forest Research Center; Forest Research Institute; DENR; Malaybalay; Bukidnon; Philippines

Sylvatrop 11 (1&2): 35-42 (1986)

Abstract:
The economic rotation of 'kaatoan bangkal' (Anthocephalus chinensis) pulptimber, sawtimber, and combination of pulptimber and sawtimber in Nasipit Lumber Company plantations were determined by the Net Present Value approach at 18% rate of interest. The economic rotations derived were 5 years of pulptimber, and 7 years for the combination of pulptimber and sawtimber in the six accessibility classes and in site indices 12 to 21. The effects of accessibility, site quality and rate of interest on economic rotation were discussed.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB); Forestry Campus; College; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5363 221; fax: (63) (49) 5363 630
Email: erdb@laguna.net




NO. 50125

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 4. Forages


't Mannetje, L (ed); Jones, RM (ed)
Department of Field Crops and Grassland Science; Wageningen Agricultural University; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1992; 300 p

Abstract:
This volume deals with forages currently used in South-East Asia or with potential use. Although South-East Asian agriculture is mostly geared to the production of rice and plantation crops, livestock play an important role in providing draft power and for the production of meat, milk and dung. The livestock in South-East Asia comprise about 28 million cattle, 19 million buffaloes, 6 million sheep and 17 million goats. With a population of about 400 million people, it can be expected that demand for meat and milk will increase considerably in the near future. Hence, improved forage production will be necessary to feed the increasing number of livestock. This can be achieved on small and large farms, provided that due consideration is given to the strong interaction between socio-economic conditions, management of the forage production system within the existing farm system, and marketing. 114 species are described and illustrated. There are two lists of about 500 species which have been noted as being used for forage in the major historian handbooks on economically useful plants of South-East Asia. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of forages. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 20473

Physical treatment or rice straw for goats and sheeps and the response to substitute with variable levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata) forages


Devendra, C
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

MARDI Research Bulletin 11 (3): 272-290 (1983)

Abstract:
The results of five balance studies were presented concerning the utilisation of untreated rice straw with physical treatment and substitution with either cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) leaves, leucaena (L. leucocephala) leaves plus stems plus pods or gliricidia (Gliricidia maculata). Feeding freshly collected versus stored older rice straw to goats and sheeps increased DMI with older straw (46.3 - 55.2 g/W0.75kg) compared to the fresh feed (40.5 - 41.0 g/W0.75kg). Goats significantly consumed more DMI than sheeps (
Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Jalan FRIM, Kepong Karung Berkunci 201, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia; phone: (60) (3) 627 42633; fax: (60) (3) 627 65531
Email: philip@frim.gov.my




NO. 37139

Effects of ipil-ipil as organic fertilizer on root crops


Escalada, RG; Posas, MB; Javier, RR; Abit, S
Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; Visayas College of Agriculture (VISCA); 1986; Management Information Systems Division (MISD); Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); 147 p

Abstract:
Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of ipil-ipil herbage as organic fertilizer on the growth and yield of cassava, sweet potato, taro and yam, its effect on some physical and chemical properties of the soil, and whether ipil-ipil can substitute or supplement inorganic fertilizer on root crops. The use of ipil-ipil herbage resulted in higher marketable and total root yield of cassava, taro and yam. However, ipil-ipil fertilization, singly or in combination with inorganic fertilizer reduced the number and weight of marketable roots compared with the control plants. The application of ipil-ipil leaves with inorganic fertilizer under sweet potato cropping, increased the soil organic matter and available P and K. In other root crops, ipil-ipil fertilization augmented the fertility status of the soil. The use of ipil-ipil leaves as substitute or supplement to inorganic fertilizer on root crops was found feasible.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Los Baños; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 37140

Effects of application of ipil-ipil herbage on taro (Colocasia esculenta)


Abit, S; Escalada, RG
Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstracts; Visayas College of Agriculture (VISCA); 1976; Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), Management Information Systems Division (MISD); Project No. 0998-81-00.12 (151); p 79-118

Abstract:
Four successive croppings with the following fertilizer treatments were undertaken: F-0 = (control); F-1 = 60-90-90 kg NPK, K?O/ha; F-2 = 90-90-90 kg NPK/ha; F-3 = 7.23 t/ha ipil-ipil +78 kg P?O? + 42 kg K?O/ha and F-4 = 10.84 t/ha ipil-ipil + 72 kg P?O? + 17.4 kg K?O/ha. These were applied during the first and third plantings only. The second and fourth croppings served as residual croppings. Two treatments: F-5 = 7.23 t/ha ipil-ipil alone and F-6 = 10.84 t/ha ipil-ipil alone, were added during the third and succeeding crops. Treatment F-4 stimulated vigorous growth of taro particularly during the first cropping as manifested by significantly taller plants at harvest, larger leaf area indices, and higher herbage yield. In the third cropping, a similar response of the crop under F-3 and F-4 were noted. In most cases, F-2 significantly influenced the yield and yield components of taro which was essentially the same as that of F-3. Treatment F-4, in the first cropping resulted in appreciably heavier marketable corms (15.18 t/ha) and heavier total corm yield (16.39 t/ha) than the rest of the treatments. Application of F-5, although not included in the statistical analysis, resulted in the production of higher herbage yield than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, F-5 and F-6 produced marketable corms and total corm yield comparable to or even higher than F-3 and F-4. Despite the high cost of production incurred in organic fertilization,higher net returns were obtained due to considerable yield of the crop. No significant differences were observed among the growth and yield component parameters in the residual croppings (2nd and 4th).

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Los Baños; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 37482

Recommended permanent shade trees for coffee are: Ipil-ipil, Dap-dap and Kakawate or Madre de Cacao


Santiago, VC
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; La Trinidad; Benguet; Philippines

Extension 1 (2): 5 (1985)

Abstract:
Shaded coffee was healthier than that of the exposed.

Availability :
Library; Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium (HARRDEC); Benguet State University; La Trinidad; Benguet; Philippines; phone: (63) (74) 4222 775; (63) (74) 4221 656
Email: harrdec@skyinet.net




NO. 37057

Phenology of selected industrial forest plantation species.


Dela Cruz, RE
Research Storage and Retrieval System (RETRES) Research Abstract; University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB); 1984; UPLB - Philippines Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Indusplant Prog. A.1.2; No.4101-78-03.01.001; Management Information Systems Division (MISD); 110 p

Abstract:
A study was carried out on phenology and diameter growth of selected fast-growing tree species in Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya and Abra. Likewise, the annual magnitude and cycle of growth for each species were discussed. In Mt. Makiling, Laguna, relative humidity influenced the diameter growth of 'Kaatoan bangkal' (Anthocephalus chinensis), Moluccan sau (Albizia falcataria), 'gubas' (Endospermum peltatum), and 'yemane' (Gmelina arborea) followed by evaporation and sunshine duration. Rainfall, radiation and air temperature had the least influence factors mentioned affected 'ipil-ipil' (Leucaena leucocephala). Rainfall, evaporation and air temperature affected the growth of 'yemane' and 'Kaaton bangkal' in Diadi, Nueva Vizcaya. Phenological observations in all stations appeared to be timed considerably with weather. The flower bud, flower, and fruit of moluccan sau, 'bagras' (Eucalyptus deglupta), red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and 'yemane' developed during low rainfall, high solar radiation and sunshine duration. All species flushed and disseminated fruits/seeds before or during the rainy season.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD); Los Baños; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 38212

Effect of time of application of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) (Lam.) De Wit leaves as fertilizer for transplanted rice


Lao-Lao, MB; Alferez, AC; Mabbayad, BB
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 5 (1): 7-14 (1980)

Abstract:
Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of time of ipil-ipil leaves application on grain yield of IR-36 and IR-42 in a rice field from January 1979 to October 1979. Also, the study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of ipil-ipil as organic fertilizer to paddy rice as compared to ammonium sulfate fertilizer. Grain yield of both the test varieties which were fertilized with ipil-ipil leaves were comparable to those fertilized with inorganic fertilizer (ammonium sulfate). Number of panicle per hill of rice plants fertilized with ipil-ipil leaves were comparable to those fertilized with ammonium sulfate. Based on the results, ipil-ipil leaves as organic fertilizer could be applied singly or in split, anytime within three weeks before transplanting and within three weeks after transplanting. Ipil-ipil leaves as organic fertilizer can effectively substitute inorganic oil-based fertilizer in paddy rice production.

Availability :
The Secretariat; Crop Science Society of the Philippines (CSSP); Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB); University of Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB); College; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5362 298; fax: (63) (49) 5363 438
Email: vmvc@ipb.uplb.edu.ph




NO. 39565

Green manuring research in the Philippines - a review


Meelu, OP; Morris, RA
Crop Science Society of the Philippines; c/o Institute of Plant Breeeding; UP Los Baños; College; Laguna

The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 11 (1): 53-59 (1986)

Abstract:
Because of the continuing energy crisis and rising fertilizer input costs, there is renewed interest in organic manuring for agricultural production. This paper reviewed studies on biomass production, N accumulation, and effects of legume green manures on crop yield and soil fertility in the Philippines. Biomass production and N yield generally increased, but N content decreased with the age of the legume. Sesbania showed promise as a quick-growing legume with high biomass production and N accumulation per unit area per unit time. The results revealed that legume manuring generally increased crop yield considerably. An equivalent of 50-100 kg N/ha in rice and 30-60 kg N/ha in maize as inorganic fertilizer was obtained with green manuring. N from ipil-ipil leaves gave rice, corn, sorghum and cassava yields comparable to N chemical fertilizer. Fast decomposition and N release from legume green manure and buildup of soil fertility have been reported. The need for more research in different soil and climatic situation was emphasized. Problems and prospects of green manuring were discussed.

Availability :
Library; Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB); University of the Philippines Los Baños, College; Laguna; Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5362 298; fax: (63) (49) 5363 438
Email: vmvc@ipb.uplb.edu.ph




NO. 66803

Yield of maize and soybean in a hedgerow intercropping system


Sitompul, SM; Syekhfani, MS; van der Heide, J
Faculty of Agriculture; Brawijaya University; Malang; Indonesia

Agrivita 15 (1): 69-75 (1992)

Abstract:
Hedgerow intercropping system has been practiced by farmers in Indonesia for a long time as a method to economically and ecologically sustain the production of agricultural crops. Recently, this agroforestry system is also recognized as a viable alternative for sustaining food crop production in less favourable conditions such as on acid upland Ultisols in the humid tropics. Data on maize and soybean production in a hedgerow intercropping system on an ultisol in Lampung, South Sumatra are presented in this paper. The treatments examined were hedgerows of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, Calliandra calothyrsus, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Erythrina variegata (Syn. Erythrina orientalis) and alternating hedgerows of Gliricidia & Peltophorum. Maize, Soybean, Mucuna were grown in rotation between the hedgerow trees. This crop rotation was also applied without trees in a monoculture system as control. Two blocks of this hedgerow intercropping system were established, the first in 1984 and the other in 1986, both were intercropped as from the 1987/1988 growing season, the plots were split in two parts, and the roots of trees in the first half were pruned, while those of the other were left intact. Grain yield of both maize and soybean grown without hedgerow trees declined with years. The production index for the control system Maize-Soybean-Mucuna was considered to be sufficient, but tended to decline with years. The presence of trees alleviated markedly the yield reduction of maize and soybean. The production index of the Maize-Soybean-Mucuna rotation between hedgerows was above 1.0, except where Erythrina was used. The highest production index was found with the use of Peltophorum and its combination with Gliricidia. The production index of the crop rotation with these two species of hedgerow trees was more than 1.5 in the third year, indicating potential long term sustainability of the system, without the use of N fertilizer. The effect of root pruning depended on the species and growing stage.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 66802

Biomass production and root distribution of eight trees and their potential for hedgerow intercropping on an ultisol in Southern Sumatra


Hairiah, K; van Noordwijk, M; Santoso, B; Syekhfani, MS
Faculty of Agriculture; Brawijaya University; Malang; Indonesia

Agrivita 15 (1): 54-68 (1992)

Abstract:
Long term productivity of upland soils for food crops may be improved by using a 'hedgerow intercropping' or 'alley cropping' system. However, information on trees suitable for hedgerow intercropping on acid soils is scarce. Suitability of trees for hedgerow cropping depends on a number of above and below ground characteristics of the trees, such as pruning tolerance, biomass production, N-content of the prunings, decomposition rate of prunings, rooting depth, presence of horizontal branch roots, nodulation, mycorrhizal infection. Desirable tree characteristics further include the production of useful products such as firewood, browse for goats and/or edible pods. Trees which provide a sufficiently dense cover, when left unpruned, to shade out weeds may help to save labour. Pruning of trees affects their growth in many ways. Based on preliminary observations the hypothesis was formulated that a lower pruning height leads to more, but smaller branch roots originating from the stem base. In an experiment with five tree species this hypothesis was confirmed. Eight trees were evaluated for the characteristics mentioned on an acid soil; six relatively well known agroforestry trees: Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, Calliandra calothyrsus, Cassia siamea, Erythrina orientalis, Albizia falcataria, and two local tree species: Peronema canescens and Peltophorum pterocarpum. Averaged over the first three years of pruning, the highest biomass production and N-yield was found for Calliandra (12 Mg/ha and 360 kg/ha, respectively). Calliandra requires regular pruning, however, to avoid excessive shading of intercropped food crops. Over all, the best results in hedgerow intercropping on this acid soil may be expected from the relatively deep-rooted Peltophorum, or from alternating hedgerows of Gliricidia and Peltophorum, with a biomass of around 8 Mg/ha and an N-yield of about 200 kg/ha. Peltophorum forms the densest canopy in a small hedge volume when pruned in a 3-months cycle.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 14962

Tree leaves as a feed resource in northeast Thailand


Meulen, UT; Fischer, W; Vearasilp, T
Institute for Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Georg-August University, 37077 Goettingen, Germany

Thai Journal of Agricultural Science 29 (1): 11-21 (1996)

Abstract:
This literature review described some tree and shrub species which were adapted to the climatic conditions in northeast Thailand and which could more or less be utilized as fodder trees for ruminants. The individual species were briefly discussed from a nutritional aspect, some examples were given and total rations of leaves and supplemental rations were described. It was emphasized that leaves in general were not suitable as production feed but rather they could be utilized as feeds to bridge nutritional gaps. Other species listed (other than those in TA field) were Melia azedarach, Bauhinia variegata, Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa arundinacea, Syzygium cumini, Ficus bengalensis, Milletia auriculata, Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa, Mallotus philippensis, Ziziphus mauritiana.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14921

A preliminary study on the edible forage of sambar deer


Srikhao, A
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

The 34th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, 30 January-1 Febuary 1996, Bangkok; p ?

Abstract:
Nine sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) were employed in this experiment and penned in 2 paddocks of 10 m x 10 m and 20 m x 30 m at the Lopburi Research Station, Kasetsart University, Kook Jareon district, Lopburi province, Thailand. Forage of 29 species were edible for sambar deer i.e.: Acacia sp., Amaranthus spinosus, Azadirachta indica, Brachiaria mutica, Brassica chinensia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Cassia siamea, Cyperus sp., Eupatorium odoratum, Ficus sp., Ficus vasculosa, Garuga pinnata, Imperata cylindrica, Ipomoea sp., Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot exculenta, Millingtonia hortensis, Oryza sativa, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pithecellobium dulce, Pterocapus macrocarpus, Saccharum officinarum, Samanea saman, Setaria italica, Shorea obtusa, Shorea siamensis, Solanum sp., Sorghum vulgare, Zea mays. Average values of dry matter intake on a hemp, corn plants and cassava chips were 2.57, 2.80 and 1.32 kg/head/day, respectively. The hemp contained per 100 g dry matter: water 8.07%, protein 17.28 %, NDF 33.62, ADF 26.56, Ca 0.92 % and P 1.10%.

Availability :
Thailand National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 106935

Population dynamics of purple nut sedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) as weed in young coffee plantations
Dinamika populasi teki (Cyperus rotundus L.) sebagai gulma di pertanaman kopi belum menghasilkan

Zaenudin; Soedarsan, A; Tjitrosoepomo
Jember Research Institute for Coffee and Cocoa; Jember, East Java, Indonesia

Pelita Perkebunan [Estate Light] 12 (2): 92-100 (1996)

Abstract:
Purple nut sedge (Cyperus rotundus) is considered a noxious weed worldwide. It interferes the growth of more than 52 crop species in 90 countries. In many agricultural areas, purple nut sedge is mentioned as the worst weed of food and horticultural crops. In some coffee areas (i.e. East Africa, West Africa, Latin America and Asia) purple nut sedge was reported to be the predominant weed. It affected growth rate of young coffee plants and decreased coffee yield. The aim of the present research was to study population dynamics of purple nut sedge and their relations to environmental conditions, particularly water availability. A field experiment was conducted in young robusta coffee under Leucaena shade trees. The coffee plants were pruned by a single stem pruning system. The experiment was carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station. Permanent square plots (1 m x 1 m) were used in the observation of population dynamics of purple nut sedge. Observations were conducted with an interval of one month over two seasons in one year. The population dynamics of purple nut sedge under coffee plantation was closely related to rainfall distribution. Maximum vegetative growth activity occurred from the beginning to the middle of the rainy season. The highest dormancy occurred from the middle to the end of the dry season. Available soil moisture was the limiting factor for vegetative growth of purple nut sedge in coffee plantation. The maximum of 8.8 million shoots per hectare and 12 million dormant tubers per hectare were found at the peak of growth activity at the end of the rainy season. At the same time the number of leaves was 46 million per hectare. Number of leaves decreased to 10 million per hectare at the period of the lowest growth activity during the mid dry season.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 105282

Spatial distribution of trees as long-tailed macaque food resource in the teak plantation forest of Pasarsore Forest Subdistrict, Cepu Forest District
Distribusi spasial pohon pakan kera ekor panjang di Hutan Tanaman Jati BKPH Pasarsore KPH Cepu

Trihadiyanto, B
Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Thesis; Yogyakarta, Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; 1994; 60p

Abstract:
Spatial distribution of trees as long-tailed macaque food resource in teak plantation forest of Pasarsore Forest Subdistrict, Cepu Forest District, Central Java, was analysed using Poisson method. The teak forest was grouped into four subsystems namely young, middle-aged, old teak plantations and gallery forest. It was revealed that at least 15 tree species were found in the teak plantation, including Butea monosperma, Caesalpinia sappan, Senna siamea, Eugenia monoliifolia, Ficus benjamina, Ficus racemosa, Grewia eriocarpa, Lepisanthes rubiginosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Macaranga gigantea, Samanea saman, Schleichera oleosa. Syzygium cumini, Syzygium polyanthum and Syzygium pycnanthum. In young teak plantation, Caesalpinia sappan was found in clumps, while species with a random distribution consisted of Butea monosperma, Senna siamea, Eugenia monoliifolia, Lepisanthes rubiginosa, Schleichera oleosa, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium polyanthum, and Syzygium pycnanthum. In the middle-aged teak stand Butea monosperma, Eugenia monoliifolia, Macaranga gigantea, Syzygium polyanthum and Syzygium pycnanthum were found in clumps; while Senna siamea, Ficus benjamina, Ficus racemosa, Lepisanthes rubiginosa, Schleichera oleosa, and Syzygium cumini were randomly distributed. In old steak stand a clumped distribution was showed by Butea monosperma, Caesalpinia sappan, Leucaena leucocephala, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium polyanthum, and Syzygium pycnanthum. Random distribution was exhibited by Senna siamea, Eugenia monoliifolia, Ficus benjamina, Ficus racemosa, Lepisanthes rubiginosa, Macaranga gigantea, Samanea saman, Schleichera oleosa. In gallery forest Leucaena leococephala, Syzygium polyanthum and Syzygium pycnanthum were found in clumps, while Butea monosperma, Senna siamea, Eugenia monoliifolia, Ficus benjamina, Ficus racemosa, Grewia eriocarpa, Lepisanthes rubiginosa, Schleichera oleosa and Syzygium cumini were randomly distributed.

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 94355

The watershed of Bais city


Cadelina, AM
Silliman Journal 37 (3-4): 51-59 (1997)

Abstract:
The report presents a narrative description of the activities during the first year of the project, the strategies used and their underpinnings, and finally the reflections about the project goals and strategies used. On the whole, an efficient water management system is imperative for the equitable allocation of water to various end-users. But the efficiency of such system hinges on the reliability of the water supply which in turn depends on the stability and sustainability of the water-absorbing capacity of the rooting-system of the forest in the watershed.

Availability :
Rizal Library; Ateneo de Manila University; Quezon City; Philippines




NO. 94531

Biophysical assessment of existing tree species in the urban centers of Cebu


Sumabon, JM; Tura, CM
Ecosystems Research Digest 8 (1): 1-20 (1998)

Abstract:
Assessment of existing species in the metropolis was conducted to monitor their survival, growth tolerance in the area and their capacity to abate dust pollution and modify urban climate. Three areas were selected based on species diversity and proximity to polluted industrial centers or heavy traffic areas, namely: Cebu Plaza Independencia, Fuente Osmeña Rotonda and Pier area. A total of 22 tree species were identified and selected for the study. Cebu Plaza has 15,while Fuente Osmeña rotonda and Pier Area have 12 and 9 species, respectively, of the 22 species six are common in all sites. It was found out that temperature under experimental trees in all sites differs by a few degrees slightly lower than in open areas. Bigger denser crown and trees with broader leaves are more efficient in ameliorating the microclimate. The capability to remove particulate pollutants from the air also differs from species to species depending on its morphology.

Availability :
Library; Technology Transfer and Information Division; Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region 7; Mandaue City; Philippines




NO. 95265

Identification of indigenous mycorrhizae from selected trees in Mt. Pangasugan and their utilization for tree improvement


Gapasin, RM; Lim, JL; Ranchez, CV
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights ' 96; Los Baños, Laguna, PCARRD, 1997; 154 p; Lorica, MV & Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); p 31

Abstract:
Trap crops were assessed for the culture and mass production of potential mycorrhizae, different delivery systems were evaluated for these mycorrhizae, their ability to infect trees was tested, and indigenous mycorrhizae infecting trees in Mt. Pangasugan were identified. Findings: 1. Of the 14 tree species samples, only seven were identified through root samples to have mycorrhizal association. These are Calliandra calothyrsus, Cassia javanica, Cratoxylum sumatranum, Delonix regia, Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucocephala, Pterocarpus indicus, and Swietenia macrophylla. However, all the soil samples from these trees contain VAM (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza) spores. 2. Inoculation of VAM fungi (mycorrhizal roots), regardless of inoculum level, increased of both plant height and stem diameter of narra (Pterocarpus indicus) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings. 3. Four major genera of VAM fungi, namely Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, and Sclerocystis are associated with trees in Mt. Pangasugan.

Availability :
Library; Crops Research Division; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños, Laguna




NO. 91796

Local plants show potential as anticancer medicines


Urbanes Jr, PO (ed)
Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Journal 31 (4): 36 & 38 (1997)

Abstract:
A study at the University of the Philippines showed that decoctions of tsaang gubat leaves and bark completely inhibited skin and organ tumor. The medicinal plants involved in the study are known to inhibit the initial cancer growth.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Library; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016




NO. 288

Leucaena leucocephala as a green manure
Lamtoro sebagai pupuk hijau

Wawo, AH
Bogor Botanical Gardens, Indonesia

Buletin Kebun Raya [Botanical Gardens of Indonesia Bulletin] 5 (2): 33-36 (1981)

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala known locally as 'lamtoro' or 'kemlandingan', belongs to the family Leguminosae. It produces leaves abundantly the year round. This plant is often used as green manure, animal feed, shades and others. Leucaena as an organic fertilizer has been known by either agriculturists (botanists) or Government authorities. Therefore it has been a suggested as source of green manure and also as an intercrop. The utilization of this plant as green manure and its cultivation are discussed. The 3 types of Leucaena known as Hawaiian, Salvador, and Peru, are also discussed.

Availability :
Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences




NO. 94894

Fuelwood on Olango Island


Olofson, H; Remedio, EM; Neri, J
Philippine Scientist 26: 15-87 (1989)

Abstract:
A fuelwood survey was conducted in the seven barangays of Lapu-lapu City that are located on Olongapo Island in October, 1987 and then again in March, 1988 in order to capture seasonal differences in fuelwood use. The purpose was generally exploratory to acquire some understanding of the status of fuelwood resources on Olongapo Island, preparatory to a possible tree-planting component for the Olongapo Water Resources Management Project. The results showed that there were variations within Olongapo and between Olango and coastal Cebu. This suggests the practicality of bringing fine-grained, disaggregated data into relation with what is known of local geographic variations and about the local peculiarities of each fuelwood resource in order to plan for resource replenishment and maintenance in a way relevant to distinct human settlements. For coastal Cebu and Olongapo, coconut fronds and husk with shells are important fuel sources, and in coastal Cebu outrank other wood sources. But on Olango, the close to non-existent use of husk suggest that this resource must be in a state of decline. Olango islander pay for non-mangrove and non-coconut fuelwood sources in both seasons. The source is often outside the island in the dry season after available stocks are mostly harvested.

Availability :
Library; University of San Carlos; Cebu City; Philippines




NO. 91589

Antimutagenic effects of eighteen Philippine plants


Lim-Sylianco, CY; Concha, JA; Jocano, AP; Lim, CM
The Philippine Journal of Science 114 (4): 293-305 (1986)

Abstract:
Expressions from Cassia alata, Annona squamosa, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Allium sativum, Psidium guajava, Capsicum annuum, Allamanda cathartica, Symphytum officinale, Leucaena leucocephala Lamk., Plumeria acutifolia, Garcinia mangostana, Vigna radiata (Synonym: Phaseolus aureus), Quisqualis indica, Blumea balsamifera, Allium cepa, Spondias purpurea, Carmona retusa and Mentha cordifolia, reduced the induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes by mitomycin C. dimethylnitrosamine and tetracycline showing that these plants have antimutagenic effects. Heating did not affect the antimutagenic property of the plants. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
PROSEA Philippine Country Office
Email: prosea@ultra.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 102594

Effectiveness of shrubs and agroforestry in the Kadipaten village (Citanduy sub-watershed) in decreasing run-off and erosion
Efektivitas semak dan agroforestry di Desa Kadipaten (Sub DAS Citanduy) dalam memperkecil aliran permukaan dan erosi

Anwar, C; Baheramsyah, K; Hamzah, Z
Buletin Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Bulletin] (569): 1-8 (1995)

Abstract:
Native plant cover normally provides good run-off and erosion control. Trees, undergrowth and grasses contribute to this protection by which nature limits soil loss. A research was conducted to offer information to decision makers on suitable plant cover mixtures and cropping systems capable of reducing run-off and erosion on latosolic lands with slopes up to 30%. The research was aimed at evaluation of the anti-erosion influence of agroforestry and shrubs. Calculations of run-off and soil loss were based on measurements made on 0.38 ha of land that was cropped for 2 years under the agroforestry system and four plots of 4 m x 22 m vegetated with shrubs. The agroforestry crops included Psidium guajava, Annona squamosa, Swietenia macrophylla, Paraserianthes falcataria, Parkia speciosa, Artocarpus integer, Elettaria cardamomum, Chloris gayana, Panicum maximum, Leucaena leucocephala and Maesopsis eminii. Run-off water and removed soil during individual storms were caught in receiving drums for six months. The result of the observations showed that shrubs were more effective in halting run-off and erosion than the agroforestry system. Run-off and erosion under agroforestry crops were 0.31% and 0.061 t/ha/year, while the figures for shrubs were respectively 0.21% and 0 t/ha/year. Eventhough soil was eroded off agroforestry lands, yet the system was considered satisfactory to conrol erosion because the annual soil loss is still considerably less than the maximum tolerable dosage (10-12.5 t/ha/year). The protective effects and the capability of agroforestry to preserve productivity of the soil are evident.

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre, Library




NO. 95789

Butterfly species and host plants in selected areas in Region XI


Balmocena; BJ; Guadalupe, A; Marquita, MA; Maningas, RC
Abstracts of Researches on Environment and Natural Resources in Region XI; Ecosystems Research and Development Service, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region XI, Davao City; 1999, p 19-20

Abstract:
A survey of endemic butterflies and host plants were conducted in: 1) Marilog District, Davao City, 2) Toril District, Davao City, 3) Tugbok District, Davao City, 4) ERDS-Nabunturan, Campostela Valley Province, 5) ERDS-Bislig Experiment Station, Maharlika, Bislig Surigao del Sur and 6) Marbel South Cotabato, to determine the species of butterfly that can be reared and mass-produced as livelihood in the upland farms of Region XI. Graphium agamemnon, Papilio rumanzovia (Papilioninae: Papilionidae, are existing in Region XI. These butterfly species with large wings can be reared and mass-produced (captive breeding) as livelihood in the upland farms in the region. Other beautiful butterfly species found in the region which can also be reared and mass produced are the following: Appias albina pancheia, Delias diphana diaphana, Paperonia boeboera (Pierinae, Pieridae), Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe, Catopsilia scylla asaema, Catopsilia pomona pomona, Eurema alitha alitha (Coliadinae, Pieridae); Danaus (Anosia) chrysippus, Euploca mulciber, Parantica luzonensis luzonensis (Danaidae); Elymnias bezabeza, Mycalesis traedawayi, Pytcandra sp., Europa spp. (Satyrinae, Satyridae); Fauenis mindanaoansis (Amathusiinae, Satyridae); Precis orithya leucasia, Precis almana, Hypolimnas bolina philippinensis, Rhinopalpa polynice validice (Nymphalinae, Nymphalidae); Neptis spp. Lexias panopus (Limenitidinae, Nymphalidae) and Erionatha thrax (Hesperiinae, Hesperiidae). Buttefly nectar host includes santan (Ixora chinensis), bougainville (Bougainville sp.), makahiya (Mimosa pudica), kanding-kanding (Starchytapheta jamaicensis), baho-baho (Ageratum conyzoides), Doña aurora (Mussaenda philippica), gumamela (Hibiscus rosasinensis), rubia (Rubia cardifolia), atis (Annona squamosa), margarita flower, manila palm, lantana (Lantana camara), calopogonium (Calopogonium mocunoides), cosmos (Cosmos caudatus), marigold (Tagetes erecta), dahlia (Dahlia imperialis), camote (Ipomoea batatas), golden shower (Cassia fistula), ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), Ficus, banana (Musa xparadisiaca), kasopangil (Clerodendrum inerme) and two unidentified plant species found in the second growth forest, while adelfa (Nerium oleander) and calamansi (Citrus maxima) were observed as larval host plants.

Availability :
Library; Technology Transfer and Information Division; Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region 7; Mandaue City; Philippines




NO. 91869

Trees have the power to heal illness too


Philippine Journal March 24: 12 (1997)

Abstract:
Trees not only provide us with shade and fruits but also medicine. Several trees provide cure to common ailments. The rain tree is used against skin rashes. The root juice of the narra can cure syphilitic sores. Other medicinal trees include the kapok, caballero, ipil-ipil, balete and kalantas.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Library; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5360 014 - 20; fax: (63) (49) 5360 016




NO. 94350

A double blind randomized controlled trial of ipil-ipil and niyog-niyogan in the treatment of ascariasis among children 3-7 years old


Bonagua, MRE
The Philippine Scientific Journal 31 (1): 16-19 (1998)

Abstract:
This study showed that both ipil-ipil and niyog-niyogan are almost similar in their effectiveness with pyrantel pamoate. The treatment is safe without any untoward effects noted. This study also found out that of the two plant medicines, it is niyog-niyogan that is more effective in the treatment of ascariasis.

Availability :
Scientific Library and Documentation Center; Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI); Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City




NO. 94134

Experimental recipes from common plants near homes


Elgar, LC
Bicol University Research and Development Journal 3 (1): 75-81 (1986)

Abstract:
The problem of securing food materials for the kitchen has been felt while there are plants around the home which are left unused for food. This experiment pointed out that plants near our homes such as cypress, begonia, some common weeds along the streets, plants considered weeds in our rice fields, or under coconut trees are edible. This plants are found to be nutritious, cheap and delicious.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop (OSIS); Bicol Consortium for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development (BCARRD); Pili, Camarines Sur; Philippines




NO. 95834

Mycorrhizal from selected tree species in Mt. Pangasugan, Leyte, Philippines and their effect on tree


Gapasin, RM; Lim, JL; Ranchez, CV
Proceedings; International Conference on Reforestation with Philippine Species for Biodiversity Protection and Economic Progress, Palo Leyte, 3-6 March 1997; Leyte, Visayas State College of Agriculture & Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit Applied Tropical Ecology Program, 1997; p 238-243

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine and identify indigenous mycorrhizae associated with selected tree species growing in Mt. Pangasugan, evaluate grass as trap crop for their culture and mass production, test their efficacy for tree growth improvement and evaluate the most efficient delivery system for the mycorrhizae. There were 14 tree species sampled and based on root sample assay seven (7) were found positive for mycorrhizal association. These were kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus), antoso-an (Cassia javanica), paguringon (Cratoxylum celebicum), fire tree (Delonix regia), yemane (Gmelina arborea), ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) and narra (Pterocarpus indicus). However, all the soil samples collected from these 14 tree species contained various vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) spores with paguringon having the highest spore count of 359 spores while the soil sample from dao had the lowest count of 65 spores. Four major genera of VAM fungi were identified associated with the tree species namely: Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora and Sclerocystis. All the three grasses evaluated as trap crops supported the build up of mycorrhizal fungi with napier grass producing the heaviest roots (21.57 g) and containing the highest mycorrhizal spores (476). In terms of inoculum produced in the soil there was an increase of 61.6%, 48.1% and 39.8% for paragrass, napier grass and Guinea grass, respectively after 3 months. Mycorrhizal roots and soil containing mycorrhizae as inoculum increased both the height (cm) and stem diameter of tree seedlings tested in the greenhouse and field. The general observation was that the soil with mycorrhizae had greater effect on seedling growth.

Availability :
Library; Technology Transfer and Information Division; Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Region 7; Mandaue City; Philippines




NO. 50813

Planting experiments of dipterocarps in East Kalimantan


Priasukmana, S
Forest Research Institute; Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Proceedings of the Fourth Round-Table Conference on Dipterocarps, Bogor, Indonesia, 12-15 December 1989; Soerianegara, I et al. (eds); Bogor, SEAMEO BIOTROP, 1991; BIOTROP Special Publication 41: 417-423 (1991)

Abstract:
Some planting experiments of dipterocarp species were carried out by the Forest Research Institute (FRI) Samarinda in the area damaged by fire and that of industrial forest plantation or 'timber estate'. Enrichment planting with strip-line system was applied in the area damaged by fire, while in the timber estate mixed planting with fast-growing species was used. Two years after planting, the survival rate of Shorea species was low in the area damaged by fire and a little better in the timber estate, while Dryobalanops was better than Shorea sp. This result also showed that Shorea polyandra, Shorea johorensis, Shorea smithiana and Shorea oleosa grew better than the other Shorea species. In these experiments, dipterocarps which are growing under Leucaena leucocephala or Paraserianthes falcataria grew better than those under Eucalyptus and Anthocephalus chinensis. The experiment of planting dipterocarps under rubber trees showed a promising prospect. The problem of mixed planting of dipterocarps with fast-growing species and rubber trees will arise when the time comes to extract the fast-growing species, if the planting space was not designed properly. (Revised author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 100722

Biological conversion efficiency of edible white rotting fungi on sawdust subtrates
Efisiensi konversi biologi jamur pelapuk putih yang dapat dimakan pada substrat serbuk gergaji

Djarwanto; Suprapti, Sihati
Forest Products and Forestry Socio-Economics Research and Development Centre, Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan: Peranan Mikrobiologi Dalam Industri Pangan [Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting; Roles of Microbiology in Food Industry], 10 Desember 1994; p 338-342

Abstract:
Five species of mushrooms i.e. Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Pleurotus flabellatus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju are edible white rotting fungi. In a study those mushrooms were cultivated on sawdust substrate of jeunjing (Paraserianthes falcataria), rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), kemiri (Aleurites moluccana), mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla) and pulai (Alstonia scholaris) which were mixed with 10% of rice bran and 5% of lamtoro gung (Leucaena leucocephala) leaves and distilled water. Biological conversion efficiency (BE) was measured based on the percentage of the fresh weight of fruit bodies obtained from the weight of dried substrate. The result showed that the highest weight was found from Pleurotus ostreatus on kemiri, whereas the lowest was from Pleurotus on mahoni sawdust substrates. The highest BE values were found from Pleurotus flabellatus (50.56%), Pleurotus ostreatus (57.97%), and Pleurotus sajor-caju (51.80%), and the lowest was from Pleurotus cystidiosus. Substrates from rubberwood, kemiri and pulai were easier converted by white rotting fungi with the BE values 63.15%, 66.30% and 62.03%, respectively, rather than the mahoni's substrates by the BE of 6.32%.

Availability :
Library; Lembang Research Institute for Horticulture; Jl. Tangkuban Perahu No. 517; P.O. Box 8413 Lembang; Bandung 40391; Indonesia; phone: (62) (22) 2786 245; fax: (62) (22) 2786 416, 2786 025
Email: dir-riv@indo.net.id




NO. 92217

Utilization of ipil-ipil as green manure on garlic at different levels of application


Arancis, LC; Briones, RJ
TCA (Tarlac College of Agriculture) Research Journal 5 (3): 87-91 (1982)

Abstract:
A study which was laid out in a Randomized Completely Block Design was conducted to determine the feasibility of using ipil-ipil leaves as green manure on garlic production and to determine the appropriate levels that would give highest yield of the crop. Results of the study showed that garlic responded well to the application of ipil-ipil as source of organic fertilizer. It was shown that there was an increasing growth and better yield performance as the rate of ipil-ipil was increased up to 7 t/ha. This level significantly increased the growth and yield of garlic as this was further proven by the highest return per peso cost.

Availability :
Library; Department of Research; Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 92847

Evaluation of indigenous and naturalized multipurpose trees and alternative to Leucaena luecocephala in hilly-land farming


Club, BM
Philippine Technology Journal 183: 37-56 (1993)

Abstract:
A study was conducted in Laguna, Philippines to evaluate herbage production, cropping ability, tree growth and persistence of indigenous or naturalized MPTSs as compared to that of Leucaena leucocephala which has been infested by psyllids (Heteropsylla cubana). Six multipurpose tree species (MPTS) (Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina variegata, Moringa oleifera, Bauhinia monandra, Pithecellobium dulce, and Leucaena leucocephala) were established in hedge-rows and subjected to initial cutting at trees and to three cutting frequencies. Despite the psyllid infestation on Leucaena leucocephala, results indicated that it still can perform well, although yields are less compared to those reported prior to the psyllid infestation. Leucaena leucocephala needs to be totally replaced in the farming system but mixed plantings with indigenous or naturallized MTPSs is highly recommended, e.g. Bauhinia monandra and Gliricidia sepium. Age of trees at initial cutting affected subsequent annual leaf and stem dry matter yields but not survival rate. MTPSs can be cut as early as six months after planting. Initial yields will be low but this is compensated in subsequent cuttings. Cutting frequency had a highly significant effect on stem dry matter production. Cutting every 120 days favoured the production of more stems than when done every 60 or 90 days. Gliricidia sepium had the highest survival rate after three years of regular pruning, followed consecutively by Erythrina variegata, Leucaena leucocephala, Pithecellobium dulce and Bauhinia monandra. Lowest survival rate was observed in Moringa oleifera.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library,




NO. 93890

Plywood adhesive from bark tannins


Chan, FD; Manas, AE
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 22 (1): 23-38 (1996)

Abstract:
Tannins from barks of kamachile (ithecellobium dulce), native ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) and bakauan (Rhizophora mucronata) were extracted using four-stage counter-current method at 60 + 3 °C at 30 min. per stage. The spray-dried extracts were used in the formulation of tannin-based adhesives (TBAs). The TBAs were fortified with 10 and 20% laboratory-prepared phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins. The PF resins had varying phenol to formaldehyde (P:F) molar ratios of 1 : 0.45, 1 : 1 and 1 : 1.5. The adhesives were applied on 25.4 cm² white lauan (Shorea contorta) veneers with a glue spread of 186 gm/m² glue line, and hot-pressed in a 61 cm² single opening press at a pressure of 11 kg/cm². Several kamachile TBA formulations gave boilproof bond strength and wood failure values which passed the Philippine National Standard for Type 1 (exterior) plywood. The formulation with the highest bond strength (20.6 kg/cm²) was fortified with 20% PF resin with a P:F molar ratio of 1:0.45. The panels were hot-pressed for 4 min at 16 °C. Ipil-ipil TBA in combination with 10 and 20% PF resin of molar ratios of 1:1 and 1:1.5, respectively, produced strong boilproof bond which passed the PNS for Type 1 plywood at 3 min pressing time. Bakauan TBA fortified with 20% PF resin with a P:F molar ratio of 1:0.45 which produced boilproof bond (11.8 kg/cm²) also passed the PNS for Type 1 plywood. The pressing time used was 3 min at 18 °C.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 93909

Production and utilization of local tanbark extracts for leather tanning


Manas, AE
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 20 (1&2): 1-9 (1991)

Abstract:
Pilot scale production of tannins from barks of four tree species was conducted using a four-stage counter current method at 60 + 3 °C and 1:3 bark to water ratio. The extract yields based on the total solids present in the bark were 36.68% from bakauan (Rhizophora sp.), 53.86% from native ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), 62.53% from kamachile (Pithecellobium dulce) and 57.45% from tangal (Ceriops tangal). The tannin powder yields from spraydrying were 19.33% from bakauan, 31.38% from native ipil-ipil, 45.25% from kamachile and 33.11% from tangal. Tannin contents of the spray-dried extracts of kamachile and tangal (64% and 79%, respectively) were comparable with that of imported mimosa (Acacia mollissima) tannin. The tannin to non-tannin ratio of kamachile and tangal were 2.13 and 3.92, respectively compared with 2.6 of mimosa. Spray-dried tannin extracts from kamachile, ipil-ipil, tangal, and bakauan were applied as tanning agents in the manufacture of upper, tooling and sole leather using snakeskin, goatskin and cowhide, respectively as raw materials. Mimosa powdered extract was used as control. With regard to colour, penetration of tannins and physical appearance of the leathers, spray-dried kamachile extract appeared to be an ideal substitute for mimosa as tanning agent. Tannin extracts from native ipil-ipil, tangal, kamachile and bakauan barks cost P20.00/kg, which is cheaper than imported mimosa extract which sells for P45.00/kg (1987 base year).

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 94198

Nodulation inducement of four reforestation species using urea fertilizer


Calacal, LP
Ecosystems Research Digest (Region I) 1 (1): 7-10 (1990)

Abstract:
A field fertilization study on outplanted camachile (Pithecellobium dulce), giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) rain tree (Samanea saman) and Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) was conducted within the Quiaoit Watershed area at Batac, Ilocos Notre from April to December 1978. The four species of legumes were applied with varying levels of urea fertilizing. Consistent effects of nodulation yield were obtained in all plots fertilized with 15 g. of urea. Four months after application of urea fertilizer, analysis showed no significant differences among treatments on both survival and height increments. Seedling planting and application of urea fertilizer just after a heavy rain were recommended for better results under Ilocos Norte condition. Leguminous species exhibit a unique characteristic not totally relying on nitrogen fertilizer in order to grow. The presence of nodule bacteria (Rhizobium spp.) in the roots of these species is responsible in tapping and fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere. Nitrogen is an essential element needed by the plants as it adds fertility to the soil. Giant ipil-ipil (K-8), camachile, narra and rain tree belong to the most dominant and promising reforestation species in the Ilocos Region. Knowing species characteristics to nodulate at any given time of the year would therefore be important in relation to fertilizer application in the field. The effect of urea fertilizer on the nodulation yield of the species in 3 dozes was tested in the study.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 51415

Forestry entomology in reference to plantation forestry in the Asia-Pacific region – an overview


Tho, YP
Forest Research Institute Malaysia; Kepong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 2-8.

Abstract:
The meaning of forest plantations and forest entomology are discussed and the stages of development of a pest management programme described. The state of forest entomology in the Asia-Pacific Region is reviewed and the key pests of the region listed according to tree species attacked. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51419

Forest insect pests in Thailand


Hutacharern, C
Division of Silviculture, Royal Forest Department; Bangkok, Thailand

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 75-80.

Abstract:
Due to the forest degradation at an alarming and accelerating pace, Thailand is now deeply involved in a reforestation programme. One of the enemies that could hinder the establishment of forest plantations is insects. This paper describes briefly important insect pests that have impacts on forest plantations of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Pinus spp., bamboo, mangrove, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia auriculiformis, Swietenia and Cedrela spp. Due to serious pest disturbance problems, Gmelina arborea, Swietenia and Cedrela spp. are no longer established in the plantation in Thailand. Special emphasis is given to the insects of Tectona grandis. Insect pests of other species seem to be discovered over time especially on the introduced plant species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51431

The study of Heteropsylla cubana Crawford in Indonesia


Teguh Hardi TW
Forest Research and Development Center; Bogor, Indonesia

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 236-240.

Abstract:
This paper reviews research carried out on the jumping plant lice, Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera : Psyllidae) in Indonesia. Four studies are reviewed: The bionomy of the insect, the life cycle of the predator, Curinus coeruleus, evaluation of habits of a population of the predator, and the search for Leucaena resistance to the psyllid. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51432

Biological control of Leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in Thailand


Napompeth, B
National Biological Control Research Center (NBCRC), Kasetsart University; Bangkok, Thailand

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 241-254.

Abstract:
The Leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae), was detected in Thailand in September 1986. Following which severe infestations were observed. Biological control was adopted and attempted by utilization of endemic natural enemies for augmentative purpose. A coccinellid, Curinus coeruleus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was introduced from Saipan and Hawaii in 1987, and a nymphal parasite, Psyllaephagus sp. nr. rotundiformis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was also introduced from Hawaii in 1987 & 1988 for classical biological control. Both natural enemies were released and the establishment of the former confirmed, while it was too early to evaluate the latter species. Attempts to utilize microbial agents, Conidiolobus coronatus and Hirsutella thomsonii are also planned. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51433

Predatory efficiency test of Curinus coeruleus on Leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana


Attajarusit, J; nanta, P
Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 251-254.

Abstract:
The life cycle of Curinus coeruleus preying on Heteropsylla cubana was 5-11 days for eggs, 12-22 days for larvae, 3-13 days for pupa and 25-52 days for adults. The total life span was 52-109 days. Laboratory experiments indicated that Curinus coeruleus was a very effective predator but field experiments on predator establishment should be conducted. Each larva of Curinus coeruleus was able to prey on an average of 4,249 ± 169 eggs and 2,461 ± 71 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs of Heteropsylla cubana or the total of approximately 6,500-7,000 live Heteropsylla cubana. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51434

Resistance of Leucaena spp. to psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford


Yantasath, K; Watanakul, J; Athipunyakom, P; Cheewatanarak, R; Chandrasiri, S
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR); Bangkok, Thailand

Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop on Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations; Hutacharern, C et al. (eds); Bangkok, FAO/RAPA, 1990; RAPA Publication 1990/9; p 255-261.

Abstract:
TISTR is participating in an International Network of Leucaena Psyllid Tolerance Trials (LPT) established in 1987 by the Nitrogen Fixing Trees Association (NFTA), Hawaii, in which several Leucaena species and hybrids are being tested. Preliminary evaluation was made of the LPT-trials planted in July 1987 at Chonburi Province in Thailand. The psyllid populations and damage were counted and observed on a monthly basis including interval collection of biomass yields. Results indicate progressive degrees of higher tolerance of Leucaena diversifolia K784 and K156 over Leucaena hybrid K743 and Leucaena leucocephala, K8, K500, K28, K527 and K636. However, the biomass yields produced by Leucaena leucocephala were much higher than Leucaena diversifolia. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51382

Stable upland farming in the Philippines: problems and prospects


Sajise, PE
College of Arts and Science and Program on Environmental Science and Management, University of the Philippines at Los Baños; College, Laguna, Philippines

Proceedings Regional Workshop on Impact of Man's Activities on Tropical Upland Forest Ecosystems, 3-6 February 1986, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Yusuf Hadi et al (eds); Serdang, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, 1987; p 633 - 644

Abstract:
Uplands in the Philippines are considered vital for national development. They contain 7.5 million 'poorest of the poor' of Filipinos, are fragile and form an extension of human settlements in the lowlands which can absorb increase in human population. They also affect long-term stability of the lowlands because of their external effects such as unstable hydrological regime, soil erosion and loss of genetic pool resulting from deforestation of the uplands. Increase in productivity and stability of upland agro-ecosystems is a key to upland development. It has biological, physical and social dimensions. Examples of prevailing upland production systems and strategies for attaining increased productivity and stability of agro-ecosystems in the uplands are included. Issues related to the development of productive and stable upland agro-ecosystem and some suggested technology components and necessary institutional support systems are also raised. (Author's abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 73470

Changes of N, P, K content in legume trees (6 species) on the alley cropping model in sloping land
Bien dong ham luong N, P, K trong than, la cua sau loai cay ho dau trong ham hang ranh duong muc o mot mo hinh canh tac tren dat doc

Nguyen Van So
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] 4: 142-144 (1998)

Abstract:
An experiment on legume trees (6 species) in an alley cropping model in the Philippines, based on the analysis on cultivated season (in 1993), the leaf chemical amount, using statistics with Duncan method etc, shows that the results of the movement of percent PK in trees of these species is suitable for N fixation and soil conservation.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 101095

Trypsin inhibition potential of some plant extracts of leguminous family
Daya inbibisi tripsin beberapa ekstrak tanaman suku leguminosa

Hartati, S; Hadiman
Research and Development Centre for Applied Chemistry, LIPI, PUSPITEK; Serpong, Tangerang 15310, Indonesia

Journal Kimia Terapan Indonesia [Indonesian Applied Chemistry Journal] 4 (1): 12-18 (1994)

Abstract:
In a research of potential protease inhibitors, especially those which inhibit trypsin activity, preliminary screening of some plant extracts of the Leguminosae family has been carried out. From nine plant extracts examined, those which gave potential enzyme inhibition, were leaf and bark extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Calliandra haematocephala, and bark extract of Delonix regia, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the leaf and bark extracts of the plants which are considered to have the most potential inhibitor activity, indicated that the active principles were of peptide and polyphenolic compounds.

Availability :
Microbiology Division, Library, Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Email: ariebud@indo.net.id




NO. 102008

Leucana as a traditional medicinal plant in Ngrambe, Ngawi
Lamtoro, sebagai tanaman obat tradisional di Ngrambe, Ngawi

Saroso, B; Soenardi
Research Institute for Tobacco and Fibre Crops (RITFC); Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany], Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Buku 1; Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; p 204-208

Abstract:
In Ngrambe district, Ngawi, 'lamtoro' (Leucaena leucocephala) is used for traditional medicine. The young leaves (tips) are used for healing injuries, the young fruits mixed with Jack fruit's flower are used for medicine, whereas the seeds are used for vermicide and are consumed as vegetable. Besides, lamtoro is also used for land conservation, the wood is used for agricultural implements, and the leaves are used as cattle feed. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library




NO. 111417

Selection of organic matters for increasing nitrogen synchronization on ultisol in Lampung
Seleksi bahan organik untuk peningkatan sinkronisasi nitrogen pada ultisol Lampung

Handayanto, E; Ismunandar, S
Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Habitat 11 (109): 37-47 (1999)

Abstract:
Soils of Bunga Mayang Sugarcane Plantation of North Lampung are grouped as ultisols that generally pose several constraints for optimum crop growth and production. Although application of organic matter to soils have been practised by farmers, crop yields are generally still low due to low availability of nutrients in short terms, as well as lack of synchronization between nutrient release and crop demand for nutrients. Results of several studies indicated that in one crop cycle organic matter originated from legume residues only released 20-45% of nutrients contained in the residues. From this amount, it was only 30% of the released nutrients was utilized by crops. The efficiency of nutrient usage can be increased through selection of organic matter based on their qualities. Manipulation of quality through mixing residues of different qualities are easy and cheap to be implemented in the field. In order to improve the optimum use of organic matters information on their quality affecting nutrient release needs to be confirmed with environmental conditions, particularly related to leaching (wet season) or non-leaching (dry season) conditions.

Availability :
Research Institute for Vegetables Library




NO. 54566

Effect of the application of Leucaena glauca seed extract on spermatozoa maturation in the cauda epididymis of mice
Efek pemberian ekstrak biji petai cina (Leucaena glauca) terhadap maturasi spermatozoa dalam cauda epididymis mencit

Priastini, R; Winata, SD; Gunardi, WD
Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Kristen Krida Wacana; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXIV, 19-20 September 2003 [Proceedings of the 24th Seminar on Indonesian Medicinal Plants, 19-20 September 2003]; Sidowayah (Woodfordia floribunda) & Petai cina (Leucaena glauca); Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, Lembaga Penelitian, Insitut Pertanian Bogor, 2004; p 60-67

Abstract:
In the framework to increase the active role of men in family planning, a non-operative, safe and reversible contraceptive method is needed for men. One of the efforts is to find an anti-fertility medicine for men than can be taken orally. It is because oral contraception has been reported to be on the top rank in terms of its usage and this will continuously increase in the future in line with the increased number of the acceptors.|Various chemical compounds have been studied for their special quality to reduce male animal fertility, e.g. leucaena seeds (Leucaena leycocephala, synonym: Leucaena glauca).|A study was conducted on 30 male mice. They were divided into 5 groups, i.e. PO as a control (without treatment), P1, P2, P3 and P4 given 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% leucaena seed extract per kg body weight (BW), respectively. Thirty days after treatments all the mice were killed by using chloroform. The lower part of their abdomen was sectioned to get the cauda epididymis that was then immersed into 5 ml of Hank=s solution. Then it was cut into pieces by using a scissor to make the spermatozoa free. The solution was then stirred to make it homogenous, then it was expelled drop by drop into a Neubauer Haemocytometer to measure the spermatozoa maturity.|The results showed that there were: 1) a significant decrease (p<0.05) of spermatozoa motility in P3 and P4 groups, 2) a significant decrease (p<0.05) of the percentage of motile spermatozoa in P3 and P4 groups, 3) a significant decrease (p<0.05) of the normal spermatozoa in P3 and P4 groups.|It was concluded that the application of leucaena seed extract with a dosage of more than 2 %/ kg BW per day for 30 days inhibited the spermatozoa maturity in mice cauda epididymis, while that of less than 1 %/ kg BW did not inhibit the maturity process of the spermatozoa. (English version of authors' abstract by NWS)

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PROSEA Network Office




NO. 54567

Leucaena leucocephala: A multi-purpose plant for the society of Nangaroro Sub-district, Ngada, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara
Petai cina: Tumbuhan multi manfaat bagi masyarakat Kecamatan Nangaroro, Ngada, Flores, NTT

Wawo, AH
Bidang Botani, Puslit Biologi-LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXIV, 19-20 September 2003 [Proceedings of the 24th Seminar on Indonesian Medicinal Plants, 19-20 September 2003]; Sidowayah (Woodfordia floribunda) & Petai cina (Leucaena glauca); Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, Lembaga Penelitian, Insitut Pertanian Bogor, 2004; p 68-73

Abstract:
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, synonym: Leucaena glauca) which is called >kopi gege= by the community of Nangaroro sub-district, Ngada, Flores, is a plant already adapted to the dry climate of the sub-district. Leucaena is a multi-purpose plant that is used as anthelmintic, fodder, timber, living fence, fuelwood and live support; that is why the community is active in its cultivation. Cultural practice that commonly done by the community of Nangaroro sub-district is sowing the seeds in the field during the rainy season. (English version of authors' abstract by NWS)

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PROSEA Network Office




NO. 54568

Effectiveness of the application of Leucaena glauca seeds as anthelmintic on Aspicularis tetraptera in mice
Efektivitas pemberian biji petai cina (Leucaena glauca) sebagai antelmintika terhadap cacing Aspicularis tetraptera pada mencit

Ridwan, Y; Turia, R; Batubara, I
Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, LP-IPB; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXIV, 19-20 September 2003 [Proceedings of the 24th Seminar on Indonesian Medicinal Plants, 19-20 September 2003]; Sidowayah (Woodfordia floribunda) & Petai cina (Leucaena glauca); Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, Lembaga Penelitian, Insitut Pertanian Bogor, 2004; p 74-82

Abstract:
A research was conducted with the aim to investigate the effect of the application of various leucaena seed extracts on Aspicularis tetraptera worm in mice. Leucaena seeds were: 1) made into flour, 2) fried without oil and then extracted using water maceration method, 3) not fried, directly extracted using water maceration method. 1), 2) and 3) were then made into solutions. Forty two mice were divided into 14 groups, each group consisted of 3 mice. They were made worm free by giving albendazole with a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). After they became worm free, they were then infected with 100 eggs of Aspicularis tetraptera. After reaching prepatent period (21 days after infection), the groups were treated with 0.3 ml of the 1), 2) and 3) of 100% concentration for 2 successive days, 100%, 50%, and 25%. Two groups were used as a negative control (given aquadest) and a positive control (given albendazole). On the 8th day all the mice were killed and the number of worms found were counted. The effectiveness of the application of leucaena seed solution on Aspicularis tetraptera was determined by counting the percentage of decrease of the number of worms at the time of death of the treated groups compared with the control group.|Results of the research showed that the best efficacy was the flour solution, followed by the extract of fried seeds without oil, and lastly the extract of non-fried seeds. The efficacy of 100% concentration for 2 successive days, 100%, 50% and 25% for the flour solutions group were 23.44%, 38.25%, 43.22% and 51.85%, respectively. The efficacies for the group of extracts of fried seeds without oil were B16.04%, 1.22%, 40.74%, and 11.11%, respectively, while for the group of extracts of non-fried seeds were B54.33%, -66.67%, 9.89%, and B19.74%, respectively. The potential of leucaena seeds as anthelmintic is low. The highest efficacy of leucaena seeds against Aspicularis tetraptera was only 51.85%. The efficacy of flour solution was lower and lower with the increasing concentration. Toxic effect was observed on the mice that was seen from the clinical symptoms. (English version of authors' abstract by NWS)

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PROSEA Network Office




NO. 54569

In vitro test on the anthelmintic effect of methanol seed extract of Leucaena glauca Benth.
Uji efek antelmintik ekstrak methanol biji Leucaena glauca Benth. secara in vitro

Kartini
Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Surabaya; Surabaya, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXIV, 19-20 September 2003 [Proceedings of the 24th Seminar on Indonesian Medicinal Plants, 19-20 September 2003]; Sidowayah (Woodfordia floribunda) & Petai cina (Leucaena glauca); Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, Lembaga Penelitian, Insitut Pertanian Bogor, 2004; p 83-87

Abstract:
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, synonym: Leucaena glauca) has been used by the community as medicine; young leaves for treating wound, young fruit for stomach-ache, and seeds as anthelmintic.|A research was conducted to investigate the anthelmintic effect of the methanol extract of leucaena seeds in vitro on worms living in chicken intestines. Tests were conducted by soaking 3 groups of worm in methanol extracts of leucaena seeds, 3 groups in piperasin citrate standard solutions, and 1 group in NaCl 0.9% solution as control. Soaking of worms for 3 hours in the methanol extracts of leucaena seeds at the concentrations of 5, 7, and 10% showed anthelmintic effect, while in the piperasin citrate anthelmintic effect was shown at 1, 5, and 10% concentrations. (English version of authors' abstract by NWS)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 54570

Test on the anthelmintic potential of ethanol leaves extract of Leucaena glauca Benth. on Ascaridia galli
Uji daya antelmintik ekstrak etanol daun petai cina (Leucaena glauca Benth.) pada cacing Ascaridia galli

Wahyono, S; Haryanti, S; Supriyati, N
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat, Puslitbang Farmasi & OT; Jakarta, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXIV, 19-20 September 2003 [Proceedings of the 24th Seminar on Indonesian Medicinal Plants, 19-20 September 2003]; Sidowayah (Woodfordia floribunda) & Petai cina (Leucaena glauca); Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, Lembaga Penelitian, Insitut Pertanian Bogor, 2004; p 88-92

Abstract:
Leucaena is a plant used by the community to treat worm disease. Empirically, the plant part used as anthelmintic is the seed, which is not always available at any time. The plant part of leucaena which is easy to get is the leaf. A research was conducted to investigate the anthelmintic activity of leucaena leaves. Ethanol 80% extract of leucaena leaves was tested against the worm Ascaridia galli in vitro. Groups of worm were soaked in piperazin citrate (at the concentrations of 40 mg/l, 100 mg/l, 140 mg/l, 180 mg/l, 200 mg/l), leucaena leaves extract solutions (at 100 mg/l, 200 mg/l, 300 mg/l, 400 mg/l, 500 mg/l), and NaCl physiological solution as control, for 3 hours at 37 °C. The highest mortality percentage of the worm was showed by the ethanol extract of leucaena leaves at 500 mg/l and by piperazin citrate at 200 mg/l. The anthelmintic potential was obtained by comparing the EC50 of the leucaena leaves extract with that of piperazin extract, and it appeared to be 0.3. (English version of authors' abstract by NWS)

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PROSEA Network Office




NO. 54571

Leucaena psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana Crawford) (Homoptera : Psyllidae) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit
Kutu loncat lamtoro (Heteropsylla cubana Crawford) (Homoptera : Psyllidae) pada tanaman lamtoro gung (Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit)

Mardiningsih, TL; Baringbing, B
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXIV, 19-20 September 2003 [Proceedings of the 24th Seminar on Indonesian Medicinal Plants, 19-20 September 2003]; Sidowayah (Woodfordia floribunda) & Petai cina (Leucaena glauca); Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, Lembaga Penelitian, Insitut Pertanian Bogor, 2004; p 101-107

Abstract:
In Indonesia, Leucaena leucocephala was attacked by the leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana, in 1986 and it became an important national issue and problem. An observation was carried out from May to July 2003 to find out whether Leucaena leucocephala plants were attacked by the insect pest. The observation was conducted in Cikampek, Cimanggu, Nanggewer (Bogor) and Sukamulya (Sukabumi), West Java on the symptoms of attack and the existence of the damaging insects and their natural enemies. The result showed that Leucaena leucocephala plants were attacked by the psyllid but the attack was not so serious as that of 1986. Not all of the Leucaena leucocephala plants were attacked by the psyllid, and the natural enemies, i.e. Curinus caeruleus and other Coccinelidae were encountered. (Modified authors' abstract).

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PROSEA Network Office




NO. 54572

Effect of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit) extract on the mortality of Tenebrio monitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Pengaruh ekstrak lamtoro gung (Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit) terhadap mortalitas Tenebrio monitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Baringbing, B
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia XXIV, 19-20 September 2003 [Proceedings of the 24th Seminar on Indonesian Medicinal Plants, 19-20 September 2003]; Sidowayah (Woodfordia floribunda) & Petai cina (Leucaena glauca); Lestari, Y et al. (eds); Bogor, Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, Lembaga Penelitian, Insitut Pertanian Bogor, 2004; p 108-112

Abstract:
An experiment on the effect of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) on the mortality of Tenebrio monitor was carried out at the Pest Laboratory of the Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops from March to July 2003. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effectiveness of leucaena extract on the mortality of Tenebrio monitor. The experiment was arranged in a Completely Randomized Design with five treatments (including control) and five replications. The treatments were leaf-, seed- and flower extracts at the following concentrations: 20, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0 % (control). Dipping method was used. The extracts were made by dissolving 20 g each of leaf powder, seed powder, and flower powder in 100 ml of acetone, mixed and kept for 24 hours. The extracts were diluted with water to obtain the desired concentrations. Results showed that the leucaena extracts were toxic to Tenebrio monitor. 20% concentration of the extracts could cause mortality of Tenebrio monitor as follows: 62 % (for leaf extract), 62 % (for flower extract), and 46 % (for seed extract). (Modified author's abstract)

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PROSEA Network Office




NO. 67513

Trypsine inhibition ability of some plant extracts from the family Leguminosae
Daya hambat tripsin dari beberapa ekstrak tanaman suku Leguminosa

Hartati, S; Hadiman
Research and Development Centre for Applied Chemistry

Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia [Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry] 4 (1): 12-18 (1994)

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to study protease ability to inhibit trypsin activity by preliminary screening of some plant extracts from Leguminosae as the inhibitors. From 9 plant extracts examined, those which gave potential enzyme inhibition were leaves and bark extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Calliandra chaematocephala, and bark extracts of Deloni regia, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed that the leaves and bark extracts of the plants was considered to have the most potential inhibitor activity than the active principles such as peptide and polyphenolic compounds. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Microbiology Division, Library, Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Email: ariebud@indo.net.id




NO. 103706

Chemical properties of soil, production and decomposition of litter fall under the stands of Leucaena leucocephala and Aleurites moluccana in Takalar regency
Sifat kimia tanah, produksi dan dekomposisi serasah di bawah tegakan Leucaena leucocephala dan Aleurites moluccana di Kabupaten Takalar

Halidah
Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan [Forestry Research Journal] 7 (1): 34-48 (1993)

Abstract:
Interrelationship between soil and plant in timber estate development is very important, because the growth of plant depends on soil fertility beside that the plant will have effect on soil fertility. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Leucaena leucocephala and Aleurites moluccana stands on soil fertility. The experiment was laid out following a Randomized Block Design with slopes as blocks and tree species as treatments. The results showed that the stands had effect on soil fertility in a significantly different way with regard to calcium (Ca) and organic matter. The annual dry weight of litter fall was 7,698 kg/ha/year under Leucaena leucocephala and 7,887.6 kg/ha/year under Aleurites moluccana stand. The decomposition rate of litter (twigs and leaves) of Leucaena leucocephala and Aleurites moluccana were respectively 19.54%/ month and 19.6%/ month. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre, Library




NO. 106752

Alkaloid and tannin contents, and nutritional values of some forage species given to livestock on Timor island
Kandungan senyawa alkaloida, tannin serta nilai nutrisi beberapa jenis hijauan yang diberikan pada ternak di P. Timor

Jamal, Y; Semiadi, G
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor, Indonesia

Laporan Teknik; Proyek Penelitian, Pengembangan dan Pendayagunaan Biota Darat Tahun 1995/1996 [Technical Report 1995/1996; Research, Development and Utilization of Terrestrial Biota]; Bogor, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biologi-LIPI, 1996; Bogor, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biologi-LIPI, p 197-206

Abstract:
A study was conducted to find out the alkaloid, and tannin contents, and nutritional values of several forage species for fattening cattle on Timor island. Samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons. There were 7 major forages often used in the diet, i.e. gmelina (Gmelina arborea), pates/lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala), daun kupu-kupu (Bauhinia malabarica), galagala/turi (Sesbania glandiflora), gamal (Gliricidia sepium), kabesak (Leucaena leucocephala) and pisang rote (Musa sp.). The results showed that total number of alkaloid compounds varied from 14 to 30. Although there was an increase of alkaloid and tannin concentrations, from the wet to dry season however, the concentrations of the compounds were low (<1%). The increase of concentrations of both compounds between seasons were ranged from 10% to 322%. Nutritional values of the forages during the wet season were considered high. However, there is a need to evaluate nutritional values during the dry season. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 108349

The alkaloid and tannin contents and the nutritional values of several forages fed to livestock in Timor island
Kandungan senyawa alkaloida, tanin serta nilai nutrisi beberapa jenis hijauan yang diberikan pada ternak di Pulau Timor

Jamal, Y; Semiadi, G
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor, Indonesia

Berita Biologi [Biological News] 4 (1): 9-14 (1997)

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the alkaloid and tannin contents and the nutritional values of six forages fed to fattening cattle in Timor island. The forages were gmelina (Gmelina arborea), pates/lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala), daun kupu-kupu (Bauhinia malabarica), gala-gala/turi (Sesbania grandiflora), gamal (Gliricidia sepium) and kabesak (Acacia leucophloea). The forages were collected during the wet and dry seasons. Results showed that the total number of alkaloid compounds varied from 14 to 30. There was an increase in concentration for alkaloid and tannin from the wet to dry season, however, the concentrations were low (< 196%). The increase in concentrations between seasons ranged from 20 to 320%. Nutritional values of the forages during the wet season were considered high, however, there is a need to evaluate the nutritional values of the forages during the dry season as well. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 90719

Manurial effects of leguminous crops on lowland rice


Acuna, MS
PCARRD-ILARRC Integrated Regional Research Review and Development Planning Workshop: Proceedings; Batac, Ilocos Norte, Mariano Marcos State University, 1987; p 50

Abstract:
The effects of leguminous crops as green manure materials for transplanted rice were compared with rice straw plus complete NPK fertilizer (28-28-28) during the 1985 wet season. Preliminary results indicated that the yields obtained from plots applied with green manure as well as those with the combination of inorganic fertilizer and rice straw were stastistically higher than the control. Yields obtained from treatments of 6 t/ha each of acacia, madre de cacao, ipil-ipil and bean were 3.79, 3.61, 3.38 and 3.42 t/ha, respectively.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University
Email: ilarrdec@laoag.amanet.net




NO. 90727

Influence of tree legume leaves utilized as green manure on the yield of IR-50


Lacuesta, TR; Laranang, CC
TCA (Tarlac College of Agriculture) Research Journal 6 (1): 1-5 (1983)

Abstract:
The height of IR-50 rice plants and the length of panicles were not significantly affected by the application of tree legume leaves. However, plants applied with ipil-ipil, acacia and madre de cacao leaves produced greater number of productive tillers than those applied with tamarind leaves and the control plants. Similar result was also observed with regards to the weight of 1,000 grains. Moreover, plants fertilized with tree legume leaves produced higher yield than the control plants. The highest return per peso invested was obtained from plants fertilized with ipil-ipil.

Availability :
Library, Tarlac College of Agriculture; Camiling; Tarlac; Philippines; phone: (63) (45) 9340 216; fax: (63) (45) 9340 216
Email: tca@mozcom.com




NO. 90794

Effect of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) on soil pH, NO3-N, NH4-N, ionic strength and on the growth of maize, cowpea, and its nodulation


Atiwag, JA; Edwards, DG
Nucleus 1 (1): 18-25; 1987-1988

Abstract:
The results of the experiment showed that the ipil-ipil significantly (P=0.05) increased the soil pH and ionic strength reaching maximum at 4 weeks of equilibrium and then gradually decreased with time. The NO-3-N and NH+4-N extracted from the soil increased with increasing level of application and time of equilibrium. The maximum amount of mineralized NO-3-N and NH+4-N was observed at 8 weeks of incubation. Both levels of ipil-ipil and soil pH increased the dry matter accumulation of maize, cowpea and its nodulation but the effect of soil pH was stronger. Combination of pH 7 with 30 and 40 t/ha of ipil-ipil have shown an interaction that was associated with induced phosphorus deficiency

Availability :
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute; Commonwealth Avenue; Quezon City




NO. 107522

Sedge grass control for the alley cropping systems


Tjitrosemito, S; Hasanah, Y
SEAMEO BIOTROP (Southeast Asian Regional Center for Tropical Biology); Bogor, Indonesia

BIOTROP Special Publication 58: 113-115 (1996)

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to investigate the method of establishment of alley cropping systems in Imperata dominated vegetation. Tree legume species, i.e. Callindra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala planted in rows at 4, 5, 6 m distance showed that while Gliricidia sepium produced the highest biomass, proportion of leaves were low; on the other hand Calliandra calothyrsus produced high proportion of leaves, although the total biomass was only medium. Leucaena leucocephala produced the lowest biomass, mainly due to the attack of jumping lice Heteropshilla sp. The yield of corn planted in between rows of those trees was good, but varied with the distance of the trees, being lowest at 4 m distance. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Institute for Information Resources, Bogor Agricultural University




NO. 92902

Insect floral visitors of four reforestation trees species in Mt. Makiling, Luzon, Philippines


Escobin, RP; Cervancia, CR
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (3): 169-180 (1998)

Abstract:
Observations were conducted on the insect pollinators of four reforestation tree species in Mt. Makiling, Laguna Province, Southern Luzon, Philippines, namely: Acacia auriculiformis (auri), Vitex parviflora (molave), Leucaena leucocephala (ipil-ipil, El Salvador Strain) and Pterocarpus indicus (narra). Washings were made from captured specimens of insect floral visitors of each reforestation species and pollen grains were extracted and counted. Importance of floral visitors was based on the values of the percentage pollen extracted on the total pollen count including the total number of insect visits per hour. Floral morphology of each of the reforestation species and insect foraging behaviour were described. Acacia auriculiformis exhibits an 'open' flower, suggesting general mellitophily. Megachile sp. appears to be an important visitor based on the pollen load and number of visits per spike per hour. The flower of Pterocarpus indicus is specialized, requiring some tripping mechanism before the nectar and pollen can be extracted. The pollinators are medium to large-sized bees, notably Xylocopa sp. Vitex parviflora is likewise a bee flower, being visited by several species of medium to large-sized bees. Leucaena leucocephala is also visited by Xylocopa sp. and species of Vespidae. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library




NO. 94869

How to collect forest tree seeds for reforestations in the Cordillera


Baldino, TS; Estigoy, DA
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cordillera Administrative Region, Technology Transfer Series 6 (3): 1-12 (1996)

Abstract:
This manual aims to provide information to forest managers, researchers, foresters, nurserymen, seed collectors, environmentalist and general public about the appropriate time to collect seeds, and the proper place and type of species where seeds are collected.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95432

Insect floral visitors of four reforestation tree species in Mt. Makiling, Luzon, Philippines


Escobia, RP; Cervancia, CR
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (3): 169-180 (1998)

Abstract:
Observations were conducted on the insect pollinators of four reforestation tree species in Mt. Makiling, Laguna Province, Southern Luzon, Philippines, namely: Acacia auriculiformis (auri), Vitex parviflora (molave), Leucaena leucocephala (ipil-ipil, El Salvador Strain) and Pterocarpus indicus (narra). Washings were made from captured specimens of insect floral visitors of each reforestation species and pollen grains were extracted and counted. Importance of floral visitors was based on the values of the percentage pollen extracted on the total pollen count including the total number of insect visits per hour. Floral morphology of each of the reforestation species and insect foraging behaviour were described. Acacia auriculiformis exhibits an "open" flower, suggesting general mellitophily. Megachili sp. appears to be an important visitor based on the pollen load and number of visits per spike per hour. The flower of Pterocarpus indicus is specialized, requiring some tripping mechanism before the nectar and pollen can be extracted. The pollinators are medium to large-sized bees, notably Xylocopa sp. Vitex parviflora is likewise a bee flower, being visited by several species of medium to large sized bees. Leucaena leucocephala is also visited by Xylocopa sp. and species of Vespidae.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 93920

Mulberry (Morus alba Linn.) leaf meal as replacement for ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit) for fattening goats


Luis, BB; Bernardo, JC
BSU (Benguet State University) Graduate School Research Journal 4: 69-78 (1993)

Abstract:
A study was conducted at La Trinidad, Benguet from February to July 1988 to evaluate the potential of mulberry and ipil-ipil leaf meals both as pure or mixture with feed concentrates as replacement to the conventional fresh ipil-ipil leaf feed as supplement in fattening native goats fed with kikuyu and napier grass. Results showed that feed supplementation with mixtures of 45% ipil-ipil and 15% mulberry leaf meals as well as 15% ipil-ipil and 45% mulberry leaf meals in feed concentrates gave the highest monthly goat weight gains. All supplemented diets had higher feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency. Supplementation generally gave longer goat bod, wider heart girth measurement, higher dressing percentage and longer carcass. No difference was noted in ration digestibility. There were no evident symptoms of toxicity in using the feed supplements. In terms of colour and firmness of fresh meat and texture, tenderness, juiciness and flavour of cooked meat, supplementation with 60% mulberry leaf meal in the feed concentrate gave the best.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 110215

The effect of permanent shade of 'lamtoro' (Leucaena leucocephala) and rate of paraquat herbicide on weed suppression and growth of 4-year-old cocoa (Theobroma cacao)
Pengaruh naungan tetap lamtoro dan dosis herbisida paraquat terhadap penekanan gulma serta pertumbuhan tanaman kakao umur 4 tahun

Kushendar, D
Padjajaran University, Bandung, Indonesia

S1 thesis; Bandung, Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, 1996; 126p

Abstract:
A field experiment was carried out to study the interaction effect of permanent shade of 'lamtoro' and rate of paraquat herbicide on weed suppression and growth of 4-year-old cocoa. The experiment was carried out at PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VIII, Rajamandala-Vada Cianjur, from July to November 1995. The experiment was laid out following a split plot design with two kinds of shade as the main plot (i.e. without shade, and permanent shade of lamtoro), and five rates of paraquat herbicide as the sub plot (i.e. control; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8 kg a.i./ha). Each treatment combination was replicated three times. The results of experiment showed that: (1) There was no interaction effect of permanent shade of lamtoro and rate of paraquat herbicide on fresh weight and dry weight of grasses, broadleaved weeds, sedges and total weeds, phytotoxicity symptom of cocoa, cocoa falling flowers, addition of stem height and addition of girth of 4-year-old cocoa. (2) Treatment of permanent shade of lamtoro suppressed the fresh weight and dry weight of grasses and total weeds three months after application of herbicide. (3) All rates of paraquat herbicide suppressed the fresh weight of grasses, broadleaved weeds, and total weeds. Paraquat herbicide of 0.6 kg a.i./ha gave the most effective suppression on the dry weight of grasses, broadleaved weeds, amd total weeds three months after application of herbcide. (4) All levels of permanent shade of lamtoro and rate of paraquat herbicide did not affect phytotoxicity symptom of cocoa, addition of stem height and addition of girth of 4-year-old cocoa. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Faculty of Agriculture Library, Padjadjaran University




NO. 72464

Leucaena leucocephala
Keo giau

Do Huy Bich; Nguyen Tap; Tran Toan
Institute of Materia Medica; 3B Quang Trung, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tai nguyen cay thuoc Vietnam [Medicinal plant resources of Vietnam]; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1993; p 594-598

Abstract:
In Vietnam, Leucaena leucocephala grows naturally everywhere. Its seeds are harvested in summer-autumn for medicine. It can be used to treat a roundworm-disease.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 93867

Height growth and herbage production of seven MPTS used as hedgerows in an alley cropping system, an on farm experiment


Lasco, RD; Malinao, EC
Sylvatrop 3 (1): 97-107 (1993)

Abstract:
A study was conducted with the main objective to determine the height growth and herbage production of selected MPTS as hedgegrows in an on-farm setting. Seven MPTS were tested, viz: Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia villosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena diversifolia, Flemingia macrophylla (synonym: Fleminga congesta) and Gliricidia sepium. The study was conducted in a farmer's field in Mt. Makiling, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Height growth and herbage production of the MPTS were measured regularly. Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Flemingia congesta had the best overall performance among the MPTS, while Acacia villosa and Acacia auriculiformis had the poorest performance. Leucaena diversifolia and Acacia mangium did not survive.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 94926

Observations on the Tubbataha reef national marine park (Philippines)


Palaganas, VP; Perez, RE
Silliman Journal 36 (2): 5-13 (1993)

Abstract:
The marine and terrestrial flora and fauna of Tubbataha Reefs and some aspects of their ecology are described.

Availability :
Library; International Rice Research Institute (IRRI); College, Los Baños, Laguna; Philippines




NO. 93756

The above-ground structural compatibility of Flemingia macrophylla, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala as live stakes for yams, Dioscorea alata


Budelman, A
Proceedings; Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp.: Management and Improvement; Turrialba, Costa Rica, 21-27 June, 1987; Withington, D; Glover, N; Brewbaker, JL (eds.); Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Special Publication (87-01); Waiwanalo, USA; p 82-89

Abstract:
Yam (Dioscorea alata), was grown in combination with three nitrogen fixing tree shrub species, Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Flemingia macrophylla. Hedgerows of these trees were planted 2 m apart. After three successive cultivation cycles, the yam tuber yields in tons/ha in the third year were: 2.0 (control), 4.3 (leucaena); 6.4 (flemingia), and 12.2 (gliricidia). Differences in yield are explained as a function of the individual qualities of the species in their role as a living support stake for the yam. Only the yam-gliricidia association produced acceptable yields. Tuber yields per yam plant were approximately twice as high when grown in association with gliricidia as compared to a monoculture yam system that received an equal amount of gliricidia mulch as the gliricidia-yam association. Yields per ha were similar. It is concluded that a yam-Gliricidia sepium association is equally efficient in terms of tuber production per unit of area as an unstake monoculture of yam cultivars that do not require support. The net advantage of the association lies in an improvement of the quality of the cultivation.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 100848

Detoxification of leucaena seeds
Detoksifikasi biji lamtoro gung

Komari
Nutritional Research and Development Centre, Bogor, Indonesia

Hayati [Biological] 1 (2): 47-50 (1994)

Abstract:
Lamtoro gung (Leucaena leucocephala) seeds contain high protein (30%), but also high in anti-nutritional factors (mimosine, dihydroxypiridine (DHP), phytic acid and tannin). The seeds have been traditionally used to produce 'tempe lamtoro gung'. A study was conducted to find out the effect of pre-fermentation treatments and fermentation process on the anti-nutritional factors present in the seeds. Results showed that most of the mimosine content of the seeds was lost during pre-fermentation treatments (98.2%) and fermentation process did not significantly reduce mimosine in the seeds. Loss of phytic acid by pre-fermentation treatments was 71.5%. Further reduction of phytic acid by fermentation process was 21.3%, so that the total loss of phytic acid was 92.8%. Reduction of tannin content of the seeds by pre-fermentation treatments was 96.8%, but fermentation process increased detectable tannin in the seeds. Although there was an increase in tannin content of tempe lamtoro gung, nutrients availability were not affected. The fermented lamtoro gung seed was nutritionally better than the boilling treated seeds.

Availability :
Windadri document




NO. 20327

The effect of nitrogen fertilizer and weed control on the early establishment of Leucaena
Kesan pembajaan nitrogen dan pengawalan rumpai terhadap pertumbuhan awal petai belalang

Aminah, A; Mohd Najib, MA
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Teknologi Pertanian [Agricultural Technology] 5 (1): 38-43 (1984)

Abstract:
A study on the effect of nitrogen fertilizer at 0, 25, 50 kg N/ha and methods of weed control (hand weeding, chemical weeding and mulching) on the early establishment of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala cv. Philippines accession 65) has been carried out in Serdang. Nitrogen levels did not give a significant increase towards plant height, number of branches, number and weight of root nodules, and dry matter weight of leucaena. It also did not give a significant decrease to the number and dry matter weight of weeds. Weed control gave an effective increase towards the plant height, number of branches, root nodule number and weight of root nodules and dry matter weight of leucaena. ( Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20336

Leucaena leucocephala pasture in the tropics - a review
Pastura petai belalang di kawasan tropika - satu tinjauan

Izham, A; Jamaluddin, AB
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Teknologi Pertanian [Agricultural Technology] 5 (2): 111-129 (1984)

Abstract:
This review paper highlights the potential of leucaena as pasture. It provides information on the agronomic aspects and nutritional contents of the plant.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 103223

Study on the growth of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Gayndah) and stylo verano (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) under the shade of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) in the dry highlands
Studi tentang pertumbuhan buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Gayndah) dan stylo verano (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) di bawah naungan lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala) di daerah kering bukit

I Gede Manik
Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Univesitas Udayana; Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

Majalah Ilmiah Unud [Udayana University Scientific Journal] 19 (31): 26-33 (1992)

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted at Pecatu Village, Bukit, Badung district, Bali with the aim to study the growth of buffelgrass and stylo verano legume growing under shade of 'lamtoro' (Leucaena leucocephala), at the distance of 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, 2.0 m and 2.5 m from the trunk. The data were analysed using non Parametric Chi Square method. The intensity of sun radiation under the shade of Leucaena increased with the increase of the distance from the tree trunk. Topography of the land influenced the intensity of sun radiation. On the slope the intensity of sun radiation was lower than on the flat lands. With the increasing distance from the tree trunk the growth of buffelgrass and stylo verano legume (tillers, density, and area covered) increased (P 0.05). (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 20417

Forage productivity of three fodder shrubs in Malaysia


Wong, CC; Mohd Sharuddin, MA
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute) Research Bulletin 14 (2): 178-188 (1986)

Abstract:
Three fodder shrubs comprising Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Manihot esculenta together with the control species, napier, were evaluated for forage productivity with and without nitrogen fertilization and under 4, 8 and 12-week cutting intervals. Napier was the best yielder in dry matter (15.6 t/ha/yr) followed by Manihot esculenta (6.2 t/ha/yr), Leucaena leucocephala (5.5 t/ha/yr) and Gliricidia sepium (2.1 t/ha/yr). Dry matter yields generally increased with increased cutting intervals and nitrogen fertilization. In vitro dry matter digestibilities of the dicot fodders were low but their nitrogen and mineral contents were higher than those of napier. Leucaena leucocephala was the most persistent fodder with napier the least. Hydrocyanic acid in the foliage of Manihot esculenta was high but declined with increased cutting intervals.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 103693

Biogas from 2 stages water hyacinth fermentation and leucaena wood as fuel for cooking
Gas bio dari hasil fermentasi eceng gondok dua fase dan kayu lamtoro sebagai bahan bakar untuk memasak

Nurhayati, T
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan [Forest Products Research Journal] 12 (1): 1-4 (1994)

Abstract:
Biogas from 2 stages of water hyacinth fermentation and leucaena wood from 4-year-old tree were used as fuel for cooking by a family. The value of nutrition required was 10,353 calories which was derived from rice, meat, fermented soybean, etc. that were consumed by 5 persons in the family. The study revealed that biogas consumption for the cooking was 1,281 l, with the calorific value of 4,569 Kcal/m3 and methane content of 46.78%. This biogas energy was 5.85 Mcal for 181 minutes of cooking period. This biogas consumption can be fulfilled by using 33.14 kg fresh water hyacinth per day in 300 l volume reactor and 4.3% dry water. Leucaena consumption was 4,243 g for 159 minutes of cooking period with the calorific value of 4,299 Kcal/kg and moisture content of 14.50%. This leucaena energy was 18.24 Mcal per day per family. The total weight of wood cut was 164.80 kg with moisture content ranged from 44.74 to 63.33%. This amount of wood will be enough for cooking for 34 days when the moisture content is reduced to 14.50%. (Modified author's abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre, Library




NO. 20658

Alleviating the low quality of tropical forages


Vadiveloo, J
Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Malaysian Applied Biology 15 (2): 161-168 (1986)

Abstract:
Selected studies on forage-concentrate diets using temperate forages and cereal-based concentrate supplements are reviewed. These show a greater response to concentrate supplementation with forages of low than of high digestibility. This effect is quantified in multiple regression equations by a negative interaction term. This indicates that at high levels of concentrate supplementation the effects of differences in forage quality are small. The implications of these findings on the utilization of tropical forages which are inherently low in quality are discussed. Preliminary results on supplementing Leucaena leucocephata with high levels of POME (palm oil mill effluent) suggest that there is little benefit to be gained from feeding young regrowths of high quality over older regrowths of lower quality. The results also show that when fed at high levels, dehydrated POME may serve as an alternative to cereals.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20479

The nutritive value of Leucaena leucocephala cv.Peru in balance and growth studies with goats and sheep


Devendra, C
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute) Research Bulletin 10 (2): 138-150 (1982)

Abstract:
The results are presented on the feeding value of Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru based on two balance studies with goats and sheep, in addition to a growth study over 71 days with kids. The chemical composition of leucaena was similar to results published in India and Australia. Goats had an average daily DMI of 51.0 to 60.9 gW0,75 kg and sheep 39.4 to 53.7 g/W0- 7'kg. The digestibility of dry matter was 53.9 to 56.4%, organic matter 54.1 to 57.0%, crude protein 44.8 to 45.0% and crude fibre 38.5 to 64.8% for goats. The corresponding values for sheep were 50.0 to 50.5%, 51.1%, 40.5 to 46.3% and 31.2 to 60.2%, respectively; excepting for the digestibility of crude protein, only in trial 1 were between species significant (P<.G5). Nitrogen retention data gave values of 22.8 to 36.3% as percentage of intake for goats and 8.7 to 18.4% for sheep; the differences were significant (F1<0.05). The nutritive value was DCP 9.3 to 11.0 and 9.1 to 10. 1 %, TDN 46.9 to 67.8 and 46.7 to 54.2%, DE 8.66 to 12.62 and 8.62 to 10.00 MJ/Kg and ME 7.10 to 10.35 and 7.07 to 8.20 MJ/Kg for goats and sheep, respectively. 25, 50 and 75% leucaena in napier grass-legume diets significantly stimulated (P<0.05) 24.4, 32.9 and 55.8 g/day increased live weight gain; the highest dietary leucaena level gave maximum gain. Feed efficiency was correlated with increased live weight gain (r = -0.481, P<0.01). It is suggested that up to 50% dietary leucaena level is suitable for goats. The wider use of the forage for feeding ruminants in Malaysia is discussed.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20480

Assessment of Leucaena leucocephala introductions in Malaysia


Wong, CC; Chen, CP; Ajit, SS
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute) Research Bulletin 10 (2): 159-166 (1982)

Abstract:
Seventy-six accessions of Leucaena leucocephala from the Philippines were introduced and evaluated in small plots for adaptation to the Malaysian environment at MARDI, Serdang over a four-year period. The accessions were agronomically scored for their growth performance in terms of plant height, stem girth, shoot regrowth vigour, leafiness, dry matter yield, pests and diseases. Dry matter yields were positively correlated with plant height, stem girth, shoot regrowth, vigour and minosine percentage but negatively correlated with leaf-stem ratio and flower density in the first nine weeks of regrowth. Foliar nitrogen percentage was generally high (4% as dry matter) among the promising accessions. The results enabled identification of the top 20 accessions inclusive of the controls. Philippine accessions Nos. 5, 13, 19, 30, 55, 62, 65. 69 and 70 were productive to warrant further critical evaluation.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20565

Nitrogen fixation by Leucaena leucocephala as measured by N-15 dilution technique


Zaharah, AR; Sharifuddin, HAH; Subramaniam, P
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Pertanika 9 (1): 17-72 (1986)

Abstract:
A field trial was conducted to measure the amount of nitrogen fixed by Leucaena leucocephala using the isotope dilution technique proposed by Fried and Broeshart (1975). Three varieties of Leucaena (Accession 55/65, Cunningham and Peruvian) were planted both as a sole crop and mixed with Setaria sphacelata (synonym: Setaria anceps) var. splendida grass. It was found that Leucaena can fix up to 78% of the nitrogen present in the plant tops within the period of three months. Leucaena grown as a sole crop tends to fix more nitrogen than those grown mixed with the grass.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20639

Establishment of Leucaena leucocephala on the acidic inland soils of Peninsular Malaysia


Tham, KC; Wong, CC; Ajit Singh, S
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute) Research Bulletin 5 (2): 10-20 (1977)

Abstract:
Pot and field studies to investigate the effects of lime, inoculation and lime-pelleting of seeds on the establishment of Leucaena leucocephala were carried out. In addition, CIRP-pelleting and phosphorus treatments were included in the field study. Under pot conditions, both the introduced cultivars gave significantly higher yield than the local cultivar, but all cultivars showed similar responses to all the treatments. On the Serdang Series, liming and inoculation significantly increased yield under pot and field conditions. A similar response was observed on the Bungor Series under pot conditions. Lime-pelleting of inoculated seeds in the presence of lime significantly increased yield by 39-fold under field conditions but appeared to depress yield under pot conditions. A similar depression of yield was observed on the Bungor Series under pot conditions. In addition to lime, inoculation and lime-pelleting, adequate phosphorus was also required to give optimum yield. Dry matter yield and number of nodules were significantly correlated on both the Serdang (r=0.74**) and Bungor (r=0.70**) Series.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 91962

Composition analysis of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk.) de Wit) seed gum


Pamplona, BS; Zerrudo, JV
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 18 (1-4): 4-14 (1989)

Abstract:
The chemical composition of the water soluble component of ipil-ipil (K-28, Cunningham and Native (Copil no.2) varieties) seeds was studied. The gum content was analyzed for its composition, viscosity and IR spectra. On the average, the fat free seeds yielded 3.5% hot water-soluble matter which contained 22.5% total sugars, 19.2% proteins, 0.33% tannin and 14.9% ethanol-precipitated gum. PC and HPLC analysis showed the presence of mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.3: 1.0 (Man: Gal) in the acid hydrolyzate of the gum. The gum isolate had an intrinsic viscosity of 7.7 dL/g. A 1000 ppm aqueous solution exhibited a 2.29 cp viscosity. The IR spectra of the gum were similar to those of authentic lucerne (Medicago sativa) galactomannon, especially in the fingerprint region.

Availability :
Reading Center, Institute of Forestry, Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 92880

Control of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) through organic manuring, mulching and intercropping


Marasigan, LQ; Dela Cruz, A; Castillo, MB
Philippine Phytopathology 30 (1): 35-43 (1994)

Abstract:
On potted cotton the effectiveness of manuring with leaves of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, Eulalia amaura and Asystacia gangetica, and mulching with rice straw at the rates of 6.3 and 12.6 g/plot on Rotylenchulus reniformis population was investigated. All treatments reduced the nematode population. Eulalia amaura at higher rate was more effective than phenamiphos applied at the rate of 5 kg/ha a.i. The low and high rates of Gliricidia sepium, low rate of Asystasia gangetica and high rate of rice straw exerted comparable effects to that of phenamiphos. Least reduction in population was provided by low rate of mulching with rice straw and soil incorporation of Leucaena leaves. In the field experiment the nematicidal effects of manuring at the high rate (5.0 t/ha) with Gliricidia sepium leaves was demonstrated. Manuring at the high rate with cow dung and sawdust and low (2.5 t/ha) and high rates of coir dust and intercropping with cornalso reduced Rotylenchulus reniformis population in cotton. Phenamiphos at the rate of 7.5 kg/ha a.i. provided the best nematode control and yield increase in cotton. Although the treatment reduced the population of nematodes, they failed to increase the yield of cotton. Corn, as intercrop may be a better competitor for nutrients and light while organic amendments and mulching may result to nitrogen deficiency due to the actions of decomposers. (Modified authors' abstract)

Availability :
Main Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 94366

The better forage plants available in the Philippines for feeding livestock and poultry


Fariñas, EC
Araneta Journal of Agriculture 17 (4): 234-244 (1967)

Abstract:
The forage plants selected in this paper are selections from the large number of fodder plants introduced from overseas since about the end of 18th century, plus some of local species. They are arranged in three groups, namely (1) Grasses of which there are 41 species with their varieties; (2) legumes of which there are 44 species with their varieties or strains; and (3) non grass species and their varieties, which are recognized as nonlegumes of which there are 3 species. These 88 species and their varieties are tabulated to condense the description. Each species or variety is given a general assessment under 15 classification items.

Availability :
Rizal Library; Ateneo de Manila University; Quezon City; Philippines




NO. 95558

Performance of forage crop species in Ilocos Norte


Sair, RR; Battad, Zn; Pastor, DA
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '95; Lantican, CM; Cabangbang, MVDF (eds); Los Baños, Laguna, PCARRD, 1996; p 102-103

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the herbage yield, nutritive value, and agronomic characteristics of promising forage species for cut-and-carry systems under Ilocos Norte conditions. Results showed that Pennisetum, Setaria, and Panicum grass species survive during dry months in Ilocos without irrigation, but fail to tolerate a 45-day cutting interval in the dry season. Among species, Pennisetum attains the highest DM yield in both dry and wet seasons. Cultivars UPCA and Benguet have compared DM yields, but the latter is susceptible to grasshopper. Another advantage of the UPCA cultivar is its highest crude protein content. Setaria has the highest crude protein, but has lowest crude fiber content among the grasses. The leucaena accessions produce comparable DM yield and have higher yields in wet than in dry season. All Desmanthus accessions tolerate the 45-day cutting interval during the dry season. Accession 392803 produces the highest DM yield in both dry and wet seasons and ranks second in seed production.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 95753

Cultural requirements of Leucaena leucocephala intended for grazinng


Nuñez, TE; Magadan, PB
CMU (Central Mindanao University) Journal of Science, Food and Nutrition 8 (1): 3-17 (1986)

Abstract:
A study was conducted on Leucaena leucocephala to determine the most productive treatment combination(s) using fertilizer, height of cut, frequency of cutting and distance of planting as factors. Results showed that the fresh herbage yield was increased due to application of 50 kg phosphatalic fertilizer, shorter cutting interval, shorter height of cut and closer distance of planting. The highest yield was obtained from the treatment combination 50-30-50-20 (fertilizer-height of cut-frequency of cutting distance of planting) of 11.78 kg per 7.5 sq m for 100 days equivalent to 57.3 metric tons per hectare a year. The lowest yield of 2.8 kg or 3.73 metric tons per hectare per year, on the other hand, was obtained from treatment combination 0-60-50-40. Treatment mean differences statistically, fertilizer was different at 5% and distance highly significant (P>.01).

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 66479

Jumping lise (Heteropsylla cubana) attack in Kendal Forest District
Serangan kutu loncat di KPH Kendal

Soekotjo, WS
Duta Rimba [Jungle Envoy] 18 (243-244): 11-13 (1992)

Abstract:
'Lamtoro' or 'kemlandingan' (Leucaena leucocephala) has been used to separate plots or blocks or to fill plantation forests for quite a long time in Kendal, Central Java. Due to the 'jumping lise' attack in 1986, lamtoro was almost extinct from the area. Fortunately, efforts to overcome the problem was successful. Several years later, lamtoro plants are back to the green condition. It is thought that there is no 'jumping lise' anymore in the area. Perum Perhutani Unit I, Central Java, has paced the use of lamtoro again as separation of filler plant.

Availability :
Gadjah Mada University, Central Library




NO. 5650

Leucaena psyllid problems in Asia and the Pacific


Napompeth, B
National Biological Control Research Center (NBCRC), Kasetsart University; Bangkok, Thailand

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 1-7

Abstract:
An overview is presented of various problems generated and encountered by the recent invasion of leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae), in the Asia and Pacific region. Problems ranged from basic academic interests, to proper assessment of economic damage and impact, control and management strategies and anticipated advances through basic research. Attention has also been given to research methodologies, national, regional and international collaborative efforts as well as other relevant issues related to the leucaena psyllid. (Author's abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 5653

Studies on leucaena psyllid in Malaysia


Lim, GS; Tan, CL; Wong, CC
Pest Science Unit, MARDI; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 28-39

Abstract:
Heteropsylla cubana is a new pest in Malaysia. During its outbreak, extensive areas were severely defoliated. Eggs are laid between developing leaflets with the majority (81.6%) deposited on terminal shoots. Each of the first four nymphal instars develops in 2-3 days and the fifth instar develops in 2-5 days. The total developmental period from egg to adult takes 12-20 days. The majority of the arthropods on leucaena are Heteropsylla cubana and other insect species. In general, rain, pruning and cattle grazing suppress the psyllid populations. To date, no parasitoid of leucaena psyllid has been found in Malaysia. However, the nymphs and adults were infected by several entomogenous fungi, including Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Hirsutella. Of forty-one leucaena hybrid accessions screened for psyllid resistance and acid soil adaptability, the leucaena hybrids Mahut 38 and Mahut 2 had the highest vigor scores. However, leucaena hybrids Mahut 36 and Mahut 38 were least affected by psyllid attack. The most promising was leucaena hybrid Mahut 38 which was tolerant of both psyllid damage and an acidic soil. Presently, Heteropsylla cubana is posing a serious threat to the development, expansion and utilization of leucaena in Malaysia. Therefore research will be intensified, with the objective of developing an integrated pest management system for the control of the psyllid. (Authors' abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 5655

Leucaena psyllid in Thailand – A country report


Napompeth, B
National Biological Control Research Center (NBCRC), Kasetsart University; Bangkok, Thailand

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 45-53.

Abstract:
Of the known and recently introduced insect pests in Thailand, no other insect pest has received as much attention as the leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae). A similar situation is being experienced in several countries and territories in Asia and the Pacific region. A review was made on various attempts on research and implementation to develop appropriate management strategies for leucaena psyllid management programme in Thailand. Most obvious and outstanding among available control tactics and strategies were biological control, both classical and augmentative, determination and selection of psyllid resistant leucaena species and varieties, and development of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme for the leucaena psyllid. Current research being undertaken in collaboration with other countries within and outside the region included ecological investigations, determination of economic threshold levels (ETLs), evaluation of native natural enemies for augmentation purpose, introduction of exotic natural enemies for classical biological control, evaluation of microbial control agents, development of IPM programme, determination of nature of psyllid resistance and evaluation of resistant genotypes, psyllid population sampling and monitoring methods, development of sequential sampling plans, and evaluation of farmer-generated control methods and techniques. (Author's abstract)

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NO. 5659

Field observation of a resistant leucaena species in Bondowoso, East Java


Sulthoni, A; Subyanto; Wagiman, FX
Heteropsylla Research Team, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 71-72

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala is an important component of the taungya system for establishing teak forest plantations in Java. Heavy psyllid infestation in the early 1986 destroyed all of the leucaena plantations in the forest areas, while the forest managers were unequipped to manage the catastrophe. A psyllid-resistant species, Leucaena pulverulenta was observed in the Bondowoso forest district of East Java. It may be a substitute for Leucaena leucocephala to manage the psyllid problem in Java. (Modified authors' abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 5663

Leucaena spp. resistance to psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, in Thailand


Buranasilpin, P; Watanakul, J; Athipunyakom, P; Tunpanich, S; Pattanavibul, S
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological research (TISTR); Bangkok, Thailand

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 94-98

Abstract:
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) established a trial to assess psyllid resistance at Chon Buri in 1987. The eight varieties tested included 5 Leucaena leucocephala (K8, K28, K500, K527, K636), 2 Leucaena diversifolia (K156, K784) and 1 Leucaena leucocephala x Leucaena diversifolia hybrid (K743). Among all of the provenances, Leucaena diversifolia K784 and K156 showed the highest tolerance to psyllids. However, the K636 and K743 coppiced rapidly after cutting and recovered most rapidly from defoliation while K784 and K156 coppiced and recovered most slowly. Therefore, K636 and K743 should be recommended for fodder production. More field trials covering larger areas will probably validate the results of this study. (Authors' abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 5657

Resistance of leucaena and some other tree legumes to Heteropsylla cubana in West Timor, Indonesia


Mella, P; Zaingo, M; Janing, M
Dinas Peternakan dan Pertanian Nusa Tenggara Timur; Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 56-61

Abstract:
Three trials were carried out in West Timor to measure the adaptation and psyllid-resistance of several varieties of leucaena and other tree legumes. All varieties of Leucaena leucocephala were severely damaged by the psyllid. Leucaena pallida K376 and Leucaena diversifolia K784 were well-adapted and psyllid-resistant. Other selections of Leucaena pallida, Leucaena diversifolia and Leucaena collinsii are promising. Other tree legumes not attacked by leucaena psyllids were Acacia agustissima, Acacia villosa, Sesbania grandiflora, Gliricidia sepium and Calliandra calothyrsus. More work is needed on their productivity, seed production, palatability and effect on animal production, so that these alternative species can be developed for use in farming systems of Nusa Tenggara Timur. (Authors' abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 5658

Secondary metabolites in leucaena affecting resistance to Heteropsylla cubana Crawford


Darma, J; Sutikno, I
Research Institute for Animal Production; Bogor, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 62-70

Abstract:
Plant secondary metabolites have a functional role in plant defense mechanism. A study has been carried out to search for the secondary metabolite(s) that may be responsible for the resistance of some leucaena cultivars to Heteropsylla cubana. This report compares the contents of mimosine, total phenolics, flavonoid glycosides, tannins and 'saponin' in the sap of resistant and non-resistant leucaenas. Only the compounds that are tentatively identified as saponin distinguish resistant and non-resistant leucaenas. (Authors' abstract)

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NO. 5660

Evaluation of leucaena cultivars for psyllid tolerance


Crizaldo, EN
Ecosystem Research and Development Bureau; College, Laguna, Philippines

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 73-81

Abstract:
Fourteen leucaena collections from the Nitrogen FixingTree Association (NFTA) of Hawaii and one local leucaena collection, K28, were evaluated on psyllid tolerance and resistance. These collections were planted in June 1987, in Carranglan, Nueva Ecija. Ratings of psyllid count and psyllid damage indicate that K784 Leucaena diversifolia (4N) and K785 Leucaena diversifolia (4N) are resistant to psyllid. Furthermore, K785 appears to have better vegetative growth than K784. (Author's abstract)

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NO. 5667

Seasonal abundance of leucaena psyllid populations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Mangoendihardjo, S; Wagiman, FX; Trisyono, YA; Sujono, M
Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 111-113

Abstract:
Fluctuation of leucaena psyllid populations were analyzed with changes in physical conditions, mainly rainfall and solar light intensity. Populations of nymphs and adults were higher during the dry season than during the rainy season when a fungus disease was observed to infect psyllid populations. The disease may be an important regulating factor. (Authors' abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51407

Biology and demography of Heteropsylla cubana Crawford (Homoptera: Psyllidae)


Rauf, A; Hidayat, P; Maryana, N; Winasa, IW
Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 114-118

Abstract:
The biology and reproductive potential of Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae) were studied in the laboratory. Eggs hatched in 3.0 days and the nymphal period required 7.9 days. Female adults lived for an average of 14.5 days, while male lived for 9.7 days. A life table of Heteropsylla cubana was constracted and the intrinsic rate (rm) was 0.264. The mean generation time (T) was 14.92 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro) was 51.35, and the finite rate of increase (DELTA) = 1.305. The highest reproductive value was attained on day 3 of female's adult life. The theoretical stable stage distribution was 58.3% eggs, 38.7% nymphs and 3% adults. (Authors' abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51408

Factors affecting leucaena psyllid populations in Leyte, Philippines


Villacarlos, LT; Paglinawan, RV; Robin, RP
Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay, Leyte, Philippines

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 122-129

Abstract:
Monthly fluctuations of psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana, populations and the abiotic and biotic factors likely to affect them were monitored in five towns of Leyte from February 1986 to December 1988. Extreme wet and dry periods reduced psyllid numbers on leucaena hedgerows in Babatngon, Baybay, Bontoc and Villaba, but not in the mountainous area of Naval. Initially the psyllid population declined after pollarding, but the population increased rapidly with the development of new shoots. Several biotic agents may regulate psyllid populations on the island. Among these were spiders in the families Araneidae, Clubionidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae. The most common species were Araneus sp., Misumena sp., Liocranum sp., Oxyopes javanus and Cyclosa mulmeinensis. The predominant entomophagous insects were the mirids, Campylomma livida and Deraeocoris sp., the reduviid, Scipinia horrida, and a coccinellid, Menochilus sexmaculatus. In Baybay, Bontoc and Babatngon, epizootics, mainly due to Entomophthora sp., were frequently observed. Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces farinosus and Hirsutella citriformis also infected adult psyllids in these areas. (Modified authors' abstract)

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SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51409

Biological and partial ecological life tables of Heteropsylla cubana Crawford and its predator, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant in Thailand


Napompeth, B; Maneeratana, T
National Biological Control Research Center (NBCRC), Kasetsart University; Bangkok; Thailand

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 130-138.

Abstract:
Biological and partial ecological life tables were constructed and analyzed under laboratory conditions for the leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae), and its predator, Curinus coeruleus (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae). In addition to using Heteropsylla cubana as prey in the construction of life tables for Curinus coeruleus comparative life tables were also constructed using cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphidae) as prey. The population statistics obtained for biological attributes of Heteropsylla cubana were: net reproductive rate of increase (Ro) = 139.179, the capacity for increase (rc) = 0.275, the finite rate of increase (delta) = 1.316, the cohort generation time (Tc) = 17.95 days and the population doubling time (DT) = 2.52 days. The partial ecological life table revealed heavy mortality during the egg stage and first nymphal instar. The population parameters obtained from the analysis of biological life tables of Curinus coeruleus constructed by using leucaena psyllid and cotton aphid as prey were: net reproductive rate of increase (Ro) = 26.384 and 16.929, the capacity for increase (rc) = 0.054 and 0.044, the finite rate of increase (delta) = 1.055 and 1.045, the cohort generation time (Tc) = 61.02 and 63.88 days, and the population doubling time (DT) = 12.84 and 15.75 days, respectively. The analysis of partial ecological life tables also revealed relatively higher mortality during the egg stage and the first larval instar of Curinus coeruleus when fed on either Heteropsylla cubana or Aphis gossypii. (Authors' abstract)

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NO. 51410

Endemic natural enemies of the leucaena psyllid in Indonesia


Mangoendihardjo, S; Mahrub, E; Warrow, J
Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 159-161.

Abstract:
Several species of endemic natural enemies of the leucaena psyllid have been found in Indonesia. Some specialist predators are promising control agents, but the generalist predators are not. The most common predators are dragonflies, which captured about 114 individuals per day. Eight species of coccinellids consumed from 19 to 50 psyllid nymphs and adults per day, but may trap up to 300 individuals per day. A red ant colony, Oecophyla smaragdina, may kill about 2,000 psyllids per day. Some species of predacious birds, including collibri, are also reported as common predator. The most effective pathogen is an entomogenous fungus which may kill 60 to 80% of adult psyllids during the rainy season. (Authors' abstract)

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NO. 51411

Performance of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant as a predator against leucaena psyllid


Wagiman, FX; Mangoendihardjo, S; Mahrub, E
Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 163-165.

Abstract:
Curinus coeruleus (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae), a predator of leucaena psyllid, was introduced from Hawaii into Indonesia in August 1986. It has been released and established in some localities. Although its dispersal was slow, the predator suppressed the psyllid population and restored the function of leucaena as a shade tree for coffee. Forty Curinus coeruleus individuals per leucaena plant, with a vigorous canopy of about 80 sprouts, reduced the psyllid population and the damage to leucaena. The predator developed well at elevations between 400 and 800 m. In addition, the predator may suppress the citrus mealybug, which attacks coffee. However, Curinus coeruleus was attacked by several species of predators, such as the chameleon, birds and the red ant. (Authors' abstract)

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NO. 51412

Some experiences in mass breeding, release and evaluating the establishment of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant in Yogyakarta and Central Java


Mangoendihardjo, S; Wagiman, FX
Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 166-170

Abstract:
Curinus coeruleus has been mass produced, released and evaluated since 1986. The results varied over time and in different locations in Central Java and Yogyakarta. Laboratories from eight stations in both provinces have mass-produced 350,000 adults during the last two years. Mated adults were the most suitable stage for release, and the beginning of the dry season, coincided with the increase of the psyllid population, was the most favourable time for releases. After periodic releases from 1987, it was estimated that 30-40 million eggs, larvae, pupae and adults occupied the areas in the release sites and its vicinities by the beginning of 1989. When laboratory mass- production programmes end, Curinus coeruleus will be field collected and released in certain locations to accelerate its dispersal and to ensure the establishment of the predator. (Authors' abstract).

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NO. 51413

Utilization of natural enemies for biological control of the leucaena psyllid in Thailand


Napompeth, B; Winotai, A; Sommartya, P
National Biological Control Research Center (NBCRC), Kasetsart University; Bangkok, Thailand

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 175-180.

Abstract:
Accounts are given of the attempts to utilize various natural enemies for biological control of leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae), in Thailand. No endemic parasites were available but an encyrtid nymphal parasite, Psyllaephagus sp. nr. Rotundiformis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), was introduced from Hawaii in October 1987 and 1988. The parasites are now established at several release sites and their efficiency is being evaluated. Several endemic predators are also being evaluated for their potentials in augmentative biological control. They included Menochilus exmaculatus, Micraspis discolor, Coelophora inaequalis var. novemmaculata, Chilocorus circumdatus and Synonycha grandis among the coccinellids. Other predators were found too euryphagous to warrant further evaluation. Among the introduced predators, the coccinellid Curinus coeruleus introduced from Saipan and Hawaii in April and October 1987, was investigated in detail after its release and establishment. The role of some coccinellids reported to predate on Heteropsylla cubana in Hawaii and Australia, earlier introduced into Thailand for other target pest species in 1970s, was not obvious. These coccinellids are Azya orbigera, Coelophora pupillata and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Among the entomopathogens, field populations of Heteropsylla cubana were extensively infected by several fungi including Entomophthora sp. and Conidiobolus coronatus in the Entomophorales group, and Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., and Cladosporium sp. from the Deuteromycetes group. Of these fungi, Conidiobolus coronatus and Entomophthora sp. were found most promising. (Modified authors' abstract)

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NO. 51414

Transfer of technology in the utilization of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant


Suhardjan, M
Directorate of Estate Crops Protection; Jakarta, Indonesia

Leucaena psyllid : Problems and management; Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, January 16-21, 1989; Napompeth, B (ed), MacDicken, KG (ed); Bangkok, Winrock International-IDRC-NFTA, 1989; p 181-183

Abstract:
Training courses were conducted to transfer the technology of mass production and release of Curinus coeruleus to control the leucaena psyllid. After the training, each trainee was given 150 eggs, 110 larvae and 50 adults of the predator to carry with them to their respective stations. Through these trained personnel and scientists, a total of 257 training courses were conducted in the provinces. Within one year, 4,036 persons were trained. These trainees, mass produced Curinus coeruleus in the provinces. Eighty eight laboratories for mass production have been developed for small land-holder plantations. Out of these laboratories, at least 355,000 predators have been produced within one year. Although the mass production is satisfactory, the adequate supply of psyllid as predator food has been the constraint. The predator has become successfully established in most plantations. However, since predator dispersal is low, the small land-holder should distribute the predator to areas where it is not found. (Author's abstract)

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NO. 51470

Mensurational problems of forest inventory in the Philippines with particular emphasis on continuous forest inventory


Lasmarias, VT; cacanindin, DC
Forest Regulation and Utilization Division, Forest research Institute; College, Laguna, Philippines

Mensurational problems of forest inventory in Southeast Asia; Proceedings of BIOTROP Symposium on Mensurational Problems of Forest Inventory in Southeast Asia, Bogor, Indonesia, 26-28 June 1980; Becking, RW (ed); BIOTROP Special Publication 19: 95-104 (1983)

Abstract:
Mensurational problems encountered in volume estimation, growth and yield studies, sampling, and particularly in Continuous Forest Inventory in the Philippines are discussed. Developments made along these fields are summarized. The corresponding recommendations are herein presented. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
SEAMEO BIOTROP Library




NO. 51450

Pests and diseases in Indonesian plantation forests


Teguh Hardi TW
Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement; Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Proceedings Advances in Genetic Improvement of Tropical Tree Species, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 1-3, 2002; Rimbawanto, A (ed); Susanto, M (ed); Yogyakarta, Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, 2003; p 117-121

Abstract:
Wood demand for construction, pulp or paper and energy industries is expected to increase to 150 million m3/ year by the year 2010. The present production of the natural and production forests vary from 23.9 to 61.6 million m3/ year (Saleh et al 1990). To meet the projected demand, the Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Forestry has increased the establishment of plantation forests (HTI). The species established in the plantation forests include local and exotic species such as Tectona grandis, Pinus merkusii, Acacia spp., Eucalyptus spp., Dalbergia latifolia, Paraserianthes falcataria, Swietenia macrophylla, and Shorea spp. Most of the plantation forests has been established as monocultures or single species and the consequence is that some pests and diseases appeared thus needing attention for early prevention.|A survey was made on plantation forests in several big islands of Indonesia such as Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java. Observations were made on the presence of pests and diseases. Reference specimens were collected and microscopically examined in the laboratory. Insect pests were identified by Textbook of Insect Identification and fungi were cultured, identified and detailed photographic records compiled. Field observations were made from 1996 to 2002 in nurseries, young and mature plantations. There are 6 families of Lepidoptera, 1 Hymenoptera, 3 Isoptera, 4 Coleoptera, 1 Orthoptera, 2 Homoptera, and 4 families of Hemiptera that were found as plantation forest pests belonging to sap-sucking insects, branch or stem borers, leaf skeletonizing insects, root collar and lower part of stem insects, leaf eating insects, and 16 species of fungi that were found as the agents of plantation forest diseases (damping-off, wilt diseases, root-rot diseases, mildew, stem cankers, etc). Forest pests and diseases usually attack fruits/ seeds, leaves, stems, and roots are listed. (Modified authors' abstract)

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NO. 971

The smallhoders' coffee plantations in Bali
Tanaman kopi rakjat di Bali

Sukardjo
Tehnik Pertanian [Agricultural Techniques] 2(8): 275-291(1953)

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2146

Effect of TSP application on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) intercropped with giant leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
Pengaruh pemupukan TSP terhadap ubikayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) yang ditumpangsarikan dengan lamtorogung (Leucaena leucocephala)

Murniati; Siregar, CA
Forest Research And Developement Centre; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Bulletin] (506): 1-10(1989)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2305

Performance of small ruminant husbandry technology in West Java villages: Evaluation of the effect of Gliricidia maculata introduction to the OPP (Outreach Pilot Project) cattle breeders
Performans teknologi peternakan ruminansia kecil di pedesaan Jawa Barat: Evaluasi pengaruh pengenalan Gliricidia maculata kepada peternak OPP (Outreach Pilot Project)

Nawi, S; Wilson, A; Rangkuti, M
Central Research Institute for Animal Science; Bogor; Indonesia

Ilmu dan Peternakan [Science and Animal Husbandry] 3(1): 41-45(1987)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2788

Some properties of woods and agricultural wastes as energy sources
Beberapa sifat kayu dan limbah pertanian sebagai sumber energi

Syachri, TN
Forest Products Research Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Laporan Balai Penelitian Hasil Hutan [Forest Products Research Institute Report] (161): 17-22(1982)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3277

Demonstration of forest intercropping for reforestation and the production of food crops (Case analysis of intercropping in Cepu Forest District)
Peragaan tumpangsari hutan dalam peremajaan hutan dan penghasil pangan (Analisis kasus tumpangsari di KPH Cepu)

Pakpahan, A; Irawan, B; Hendiarto
Centre for Research in Agro-Economy; Jakarta; Indonesia

Forum Penelitian Agro-Ekonomi [Agro-Economy Research Forum] 1(2): 19-36(1983)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4643

Farming system approach to control erosion in upper river watersheds


Arifin, S; Ismail, IG; Basa, I
Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops; Indonesia

Proceedings of the Workshop on the Impact of Man's Activities on Tropical Upland Forest Ecosystem; Hadi, Y et al.(eds); Serdang; Faculty of Forestry; Agricultural University of Malaysia; 1986; p665-684

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4785

Effect of leaf drying on protein-tannin interaction and digestion coefficient
Pengaruh pengeringan daun terhadap interaksi protein-tannin dan koefisien daya cerna

Dargawan, Y
BSc thesis; Bogor College of Analytical Chemistry; 1985; 57p

Availability :
Bogor College of Analytic Chemistry Library




NO. 5132

Reforestation in Indonesian Timor


Hadi, S
Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; Indonesia

Paper presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver, Canada, 1975; 7p

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NO. 5547

Development prospects of 'kapulaga sebrang' (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) in Sekar Samodra Flower Garden, Pelabuhan Ratu, Sukabumi
Prospek pengembangan kapulaga sebrang (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) di Taman Bunga Sekar Samodra Pelabuhan Ratu, Sukabumi

Jogaswitani, DT
Fiels Study; Bogor; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Bogor Agricultural University; 1987; 48p

Availability :
Department of Biology; Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; Bogor Agricultural University; Indonesia




NO. 6084

Dispersal of leucaena psyllid predator, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant in East Banyumas Forest District, Central Java
Penyebaran predator kutu loncat, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant di KPH Banyumas Timur, Jawa Tengah

Hardi, T
Buletin Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Bulletin] (518): 23-31(1989)

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 9697

Some models of agroforestry
Beberapa model agroforestry

Winarto, B
Buletin Informasi Pertanian Banjarbaru [Banjarbaru Agricultural Information Bulletin] (1): 1-2(1982/1983)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 11602

Poison in feed plants
San phit nai phuet arhan sat

Satchipanon, C
Animal Nutrition Division; Department of Livestock Development; Bangkok; Thailand

Warasan Pasusat [Livestock Journal] 10(117): 29-33(1983)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 30635

Effect of method of placement and rate of Leucaena leaves application on taro


Payot, JA; Abit, SE; Evangelio, LA
Annals of Tropical Research 5(1): 38-46(1983)

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 30911

The effect of coconut water on the biogas yield of three plant residues


Alabado, MI
Thesis; Baybay; Leyte; Visayas State College of Agriculture; 1981; 51p

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 30912

Manipulation of cultural practices for ipil-ipil and its effect on the intercropped cassava


Escalada, RA
Annals of Tropical Research 3(2): 136-143(1981)

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 31207

Major pest problems of selected crops in Eastern Visayas and their control


VICARP News 8(1): 13-15(1987)

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 31252

Manipulation of cultural practices for ipil-ipil for maximum organic matter production and its effect on the intercropped cassava


Escalada, RG
Thesis; Baybay; Leyte; Visayas State College of Agriculture; 1980; 34p

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 31255

Effect of ipil-ipil as organic fertilizer on root crops


Escalada, RG; Posas, MB; Javier, RR; Abit, SE; Ratilla, BC; Peque, EC; Tobias, R
Thesis; Baybay; Leyte; Visayas State College of Agriculture; 1986; 147p

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 34221

Comparative study on the effect of composted gonoy (Chromolaena odorata), cacawate (Gliricidia sepium Linn.) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena lastiliqua) on the performance of sweet potato


Palay, RT
BSc thesis; Aborlan; Palawan National Agricultural College; 1979; 16p

Availability :
Library; Palawan Agricultural Research Center; Palawan National Agricultural College; Aborlan; Philippines




NO. 35318

Productivity of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)de Wit) integrated cropping


Ramsey, JB
BSc thesis; College; Laguna; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; 1983; 51p

Availability :
Library; Department of Agronomy; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 35556

Management practices and productivity of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)de Wit integrated cropping


Samson, EG
BSc thesis; College; Laguna; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; 1984; 51p

Availability :
Library; Department of Agronomy; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 36058

Evaluation of different indigenous leaves in ripening of banana


Mar, MS
BSc thesis; Guinobatan; Albay; College of Agriculture; Bicol University; 1982; ixp; 16p

Availability :
Library; College of Agriculture; Bicol University; Guinobatan; Albay; Philippines




NO. 38665

Effects of ipil-ipil and ammonium sulfate as nitrogen sources of sweet potato


Urdaneta, LA; Javier, RR
Ann. Trop. Res. 2(2): 122-128 (1980)

Abstract:
Nitrogen application, either with the use of ammonium sulfate or ipil-ipil leaves, significantly improved the yield components of the three varieties of sweet potato, except in the number of non-marketable roots. Among the varieties tested, BNAS-51 yield the highest amount of marketable roots with an average yield of 11.7 t/ha, followed by Bakabakahan and Bulacan, with 8.03 and 6.6 t/ha respectively. BNAS-51 and Bakabakahan produced more and heavier marketable roots per plant, and longer and heavier fresh weight of vine per plant. BNAS-51 had fewer, but heavier, non-marketable roots than the other two varieties. Plants which received nitrogen (N) from ipil-ipil leaves produced more and heavier fresh vine plant than those without N. A lower percentage of dry matter content was observed in N-fertilized plants. In terms of root yield, plants which received 60 kg N/ha, either from ipil- ipil leaves or ammonium sulfate, yielded more, with 3.0 and 6.0 t/ha, respectively, than those plants which did not receive N. Despite the equal rates of N application, plants with ammonium sulfate produced significantly higher yields than plants with N from ipil-ipil leaves.

Availability :
Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 39446

Effects of ipil-ipil leaves applied as green manure combined with different rates of potassium on the growth and yield of sweet potato


Raroque, CB; Collante, AL
TCA Research Journal 9(1): 113-121 (1987)

Abstract:
Soil incorporation of fresh ipil-ipil leaves during the final harrowing at the rate of 2 tons per hectare significantly improved the root yield of sweet potato. However, application of additional potassium to plots applied with ipil-ipil leaves failed to improve the root yield. Moreover, plants grown in plots with ipil-ipil leaves along gave the highest monetary advantage of 2.92 return per peso cost.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 39461

Productivity of cassava applied with ipil-ipil and complete fertilizer


Tomas, ER
TCA Research Journal 4(1&2): 45-48 (1982)

Abstract:
The application of 20 tons of ipil-ipil per hectare excelled the other treatments such as: no fertilizer applied; 10 tons of ipil-ipil per hectare; 428.57 kg/ha of 14-14-14; 5 tons/ha ipil-ipil plus 214.28 kg/ha 14-14-14. However, the application of ipil-ipil, complete fertilizer and their combination failed to vary significantly with the unfertilized treatment with regards to the height of the plants at maturity, number of tubers per plant, length and diameter per tuber, weight of tubers per plant, and yield per hectare.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 39459

Cropping system for root crops in marginal hilly areas


Jamito, LV
Graduate Research Abstracts. Baybay, Leyte: Visayas State College of Agriculture. Vol. 1; 1983; p82-83

Abstract:
Agronomic characters of cassava plants such as herbage yield and harvest index increased significantly by the ground environment. An herbage yield of 19.48 kg/plot was obtained in area with ipil-ipil buffer strips (A1) which was higher than that obtained in area without ipil-ipil (A0) yielding 16.94 kg/plot. However, ground environment did not significantly affect the herbage yield of sweet potato plants. Harvest indeces of cassava and sweet potato plants, 0.16 and 0.06 respectively, were found to be superior in an open ground environment, while those obtained in area with ipil-ipil strips were 0.54 and 0.04, respectively. For cassava, a total tuber yield of 13.10 t/ha was obtained in an open ground environment (A1) with a yield of 3.49 t/ha. For sweet potato, tuber yield was 3.49 t/ha in an open ground environment and 2.15 t/ha in an area with ipil-ipil buffer strips. Statistical analysis indicated that almost all yield components of cassava and sweet potato were significantly affected by the ground environment. Open ground environment (A0) consistently indluenced the yield components more than that with ipil-ipil buffer strips (A1). The legumes intercrop used did not significantly affect the herbage yield and yield components of cassava plants. However, time of planting the legume intercrops significantly affected herbage yield, size (diameter) of marketable tubers, weight of marketable tubers and total yield of cassava plants. Planting the legumes after cassava plants had been planted consistently resulted to the higher tuber yield, while planting these legumes intercrops ahead of the root crops resulted to higher yield of the intercrops. Time of planting did not significantly affect the agronomic characters, yield and yield components of sweet potato plants. Interaction effects between ground environment and legume intercrops used as well as ground environment and time of planting the legume intercrops used were noted on both cassava and sweet potato influence total tuber yields of two root crops when they were planted in a ground environment (A0). Soybean intercrops, on the other hand influenced the diameter of both marketable (4.15 cm) and non-marketable (1.75) tubers with sweet potato.

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte




NO. 50115

Research on nutrition and feed resources to enhance livestock production in Malaysia


Zainuddin, AT; Wan Zahari, M
Livestock Research Division; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; G.P.O.Box 12301; 50774 Kuala Lumpur

Tropical Agriculture Research Series No.25; Tsukuba; Ibaraki; Japan; Tropical Agriculture Research Center; 1992; p9-25

Availability :
Central Research Institute for Food Crops; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 50117

Utilization of feed resources in relation to nutrition and physiology of ruminants in the Philippines


Arganosa, AS; Bato, RV
Livestock Research Division; PCARRD; Los Banos; Laguna; Philippines

Tropical Agriculture Research Series No.25; Tsukuba; Ibaraki; Japan; Tropical Agriculture Research Center; 1992; p46-55

Availability :
Central Research Institute for Food Crops; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 65391

Useful hedge plants
Tanaman pagar yang bermanfaat

Mahesworo
Penebar Swadaya Seri Pertanian; Jakarta [Jakarta; Penebar Swadaya Publishing CO: Agricultural Serie]; 1989; 25 p

Availability :
Ayu Mas Agung; Jl.Kwitang; Jakarta Pusat; Indonesia




NO. 65421

Cardamomum
Kapulaga

Santoso, H.B.
Penerbit Yayasan Kanisius; Yogyakarta; 1988; 58 p

Availability :
Semarang College of Farming; Semarang; Central Java; Indonesia




NO. 65436

Useful hedge plants
Tanaman pagar yang bermanfaat

Mahesworo
Penerbit PT.Penebar Swadaya (Seri Pertanian XXVIII/08/87) [Penebar Swadaya Co. Publisher (Agricultural Series LXX/206/89) Jakarta; 1989; 25 p

Availability :
Gramedia; Jl.Matraman Raya; Jakarta; Indonesia




NO. 68634

Small ruminant research and development in Yogyakarta special region


Astuti, Maria
Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Proceedings of a Workshop; Sheep and Goats Research for Development, 18-19 October 1989; Bogor; Subandrijo(ed); Djajanegara, A(ed); Mathius, I.W. (ed); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak Bogor; 1992; p19-26

Availability :
Research Institute for Livestock




NO. 101061

Application of various concentrate materials on the breed-to-be ewes with different birth types
Pemberian berbagai macam bahan konsentrat pada domba betina calon bibit dengan tipe kelahiran berbeda

Sudaryanto, B.; Inounu, I.; Haryanto, B.
Research Institute for Livestock; Ciawi; Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Peternakan, Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-Hasil Penelitian [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Science and Technology of Animal Husbandry, Processing and Communication of Research Results], Ciawi Bogor 25-26 Januari 1994; Bakrie, B(ed); Haryanto, B (ed); Wina, E(ed); Kompiang, I.P.(ed); Dwiyanto, K(ed); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak; 1994; Vol.1; p. 403-410

Availability :
Research Centre for Livestock; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 101064

Study on the feed supply pattern for goat bred in Jeneponto district
Studi pola penyediaan pakan untuk ternak kambing di kabupaten Jeneponto

Ella, A.; Paat, P.C.; Salam, R.
Gowa Research Station for Livestock; Ujung Pandang; South Sulawesi; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Peternakan, Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-Hasil Penelitian [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Science and Technology of Animal Husbandry, Processing and Communication of Research Results], Ciawi Bogor 25-26 Januari 1994; Bakrie, B(ed); Haryanto, B (ed); Wina, E (ed); Kompiang, I.P.(ed); Dwiyanto, K(ed); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak; 1994; Vol.1; p. 475-483

Availability :
Research Centre for Livestock; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 101065

Feeding pattern for growing "pe" goats in Sleman rural areas (Yogyakarta)
Pola pemberian pakan untuk pembesaran kambing "pe" di daerah pedesaan Sleman (Yogyakarta)

Suparyanto, A.; Silitonga, Sorta A.; Haryanto, B.; Kuswandi; Martawidjaja, M.
Research Institute for Livestock; Ciawi; Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Peternakan, Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-Hasil Penelitian [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Science and Technology of Animal Husbandry, Processing and Communication of Research Results], Ciawi Bogor 25-26 Januari 1994; Bakrie, B(ed); Haryanto, B (ed); Wina, E(ed); Kompiang, I.P.(ed); Dwiyanto, K(ed); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak; 1994; Vol.1; p. 521-528

Availability :
Research Centre for Livestock; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 105747

Effect of TSP fertilization on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crants) intercropped in lamtoro-gung (Leucaena leucocephala)
Pengaruh pemupukan TSP terhadap ubikayu (Manihot esculenta Crants) yang ditumpangsarikan dengan lamtorogung (Leucaena leucocephala)

Murniati; Siregar, Ch.A.
Buletin Penelitian Hutan (Forest Research Bulletin) (585): 1-10(1995)

Abstract:
The research on the effect of TSP fertilization on cassava intercropped within leucaena plantation was conducted during October 1986 until June 1987, in the Field Station at Kalibatu, Tanjung Bintang, Lampung. After 3 years old leucaena plantation was coppiced at 25 cm above the ground, the soil was tilled and TSP fertilizer was applied using broadcast method. Five levels of fertilizer were investigated, namely 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 kg TSP per ha. A 20-25 cm length of cassava cutting was planted at spacing of 100 cm x 100 cm in between coppiced leucaena row. Leucaena spacings were 2m x 1m, 2m x 2m, and 3m x 1m. Product data of cassava, namely weight of fresh tuber when harvesting were recorded from ten sample plants which each originated from border row and middle row. The aim of this research was to clarify whether the differences existed between the border and middle row plant. Growth data of Leucaena trees recorded are diameter, height and biomass production at the age of 8 months. To investigate the effect of treatment given on the parameters observed, simple regression analysis was employed, meanwhile to investigate wether different response of cassava existed due to different position (border row plant and middle row plant) analysis of variance was used. The results showed that TSP application tend to increase fresh tuber plant as well, and considerable effects on these parameters was observed. This is probably due to a good availability of soil phosphorus in supporting the cassava growth. Hence, if moderate yield is concerned, low dosage of phosphorus fertilizer is needed as compensate for the removal by the crop, and incontrast, if maximum yield is considered, TSP application at dosage of 750 kg/ha is recommended.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Centre (FPRDC); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 90771

Preliminary investigation on the re-vegetation of mine tailing dumps: The nature of tailing material and amendment of its nutrient status


Lirio, LG; Mercado, BT
Mountain State Agricultural College Research Journal 9: 63-86 (1981)

Abstract:
A pot experiment was designed employing two NPK levels, namely 60-30-30 and 90-60-60 kg/ha and two sources of organic matter namely poultry manure and dried ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaves. The experiment consisted of two croppings with cotton, ipil-ipil and corn as test crops, all harvested at flowering time. Irrespective of the levels of NPK and source of organic matter the treatment NPK + organic matter gave the best growth in terms of plant height, dry matter production, and stem diameter. Addition of organic matter alone to the tailings produced markedly improved growth compared to the plants that received NPK alone. Addition of low or high levels of NPK alone did not improve the growth of the plants. The response was comparable to the plants grown in tailings alone. There was a marked increased in uptake of the major elements by the plants that received combined NPK and organic matter. The concentrations of available heavy metals in the tailings appear to be within tolerable limits for plant growth.

Availability :
Library; benguet state University; La Trinidad; Benguet; Philippines




NO. 430

Teak plantations in Java
Tanaman djati di Djawa

Wepf, W
Rimba Indonesia [Indonesian Jungle] 3 (8-10): 400-416 (1954)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3281

Intensification of forest land management to increase production and vocation
Intensifikasi pengelolaan lahan hutan untuk peningkatan produksi dan lapangan kerja

Siswodarsono, S; Nisbunsaputra, N; Wasdju, M
Prosiding Seminar Intensifikasi Pengelolaan Kehutanan menuju Peningkatan Produktivitas dan Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja [Proceedings of the Seminar on Intensification of Forest Management towards the Improvement of Productivity and Manpower Utilization]; Coto, Z et al (eds); 1987; p25-39

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3699

Food material from a mixture of corn and giant leucaena as an effort to increase non-rice food comsumption
Bahan makanan campuran (BMC) jagung - lamtoro-gung sebagai usaha meningkatkan konsumsi bahan makanan non-beras

Nutritional Research and Development Centre; Bogor; Indonesia

Proceedings Diskusi Teknologi Pangan VI [Proceedings of the 6th Discussion on Food Technology]; Bogor; 1985; pP1-P10

Availability :
Central Institute for Research and Development of Agro-based Industry; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 8084

Farming pattern of sloping land using leucaena terrace system
Pola usahatani lahan miring dengan sistem terasering lamtoro

West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian NTB [West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Bulletin] (6): 19-20 (1986)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9030

Effects of the composition of cajeput leaf wastes,rice husks and NPK fertilizer application on the growth of Leucaena leucocephala (L.)de Wit seedlings
Pengaruh komposisi medium limbah daun kayu putih,sekam padi dengan pemupukan NPK terhadap pertumbuhan semai Leucaena leucocephala (L.)de Wit

Prasetya; A
Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; 1988; 102p

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry Library, Gadjah Mada University




NO. 22277

Results of alley cropping experiments with Leucaena leucocephala and Zea mays in the Kenya coast


Macklin, B
NFTA; P.O.Box 680; Waimanalo; Hawaii

Leucaena Research Reports 9: 61-64 (1988)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 30382

The effect of intercropped ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)de Wit) as organic fertilizer on the growth and yield of corn


Alvarez, FR; Alferez, AC
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 7 (1): 73 (1982)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 30440

The effect of organic mulches: Madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) on the yield of corn


Rodriguez, DC; Rodriguez, DM; Bongolan, FF
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 13 (Supp.1): S8 (1988)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 107955

Nutritive value of corn waste product and leucaena leaves by using additives molasses, onggok and brown sugar
Nilai gizi silase campuran limbah jagung dan daun lamtoro dengan tetes, onggok dan gula merah sebagai bahan pengawet

Subekti,K.; Basuki,T.
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Mikrobiologi Lingkungan [Proceedings of the National Workshop on Environment Microbiology], Bogor, 27-28 September 1994; 1995; p.85-90

Abstract:
This experiment to establish nutritive value silage of corn waste product and leucaena leaves (100% corn waste; 90% corn waste + 10% leucaena leaves, 80% corn waste + 20% leucaena leaves, 70% corn waste + 30% leucaena leaves, 60% corn waste + 40% leucaena leaves and 50% corn waste + 50% leucaena leaves) by using additives (control, molasses, "onggok" and red sugar), 3% respectively. The results of this experiment that colour and smell of the silage are similar for all the treatments. The colour are brownish green and the smell are acids. All of the treatments were not wet and no fungi. Statistically analysis for acidity (pH) showed that significantly affected (P<= 0.05) between control and 3 additives treatment, but comparative corn waste product and leucaena leaves not significantly. Average crude protein and crude fat significantly (P<= 0.05) for additives and comparative corn waste product and leucaena leaves, but not interaction. The results indicated the silage from corn waste can be increased nutritive value with to give leaucaena leaves but must be to give additive.

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 34810

Corn and ipil-ipil farming system for hilly areas


Technology 2 (10): 1-11 (1980)

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 35777

Response of broom corn (Sorghum vulgare var. technicus) on the varying amount of ipil-ipil with OSP (18% P2O5)


Evangelista, MLP
BSc thesis; Malabon; Metro Manila; Gregorio Araneta University Foundation; 1980; 29p

Availability :
Library; Gregorio Araneta University Foundation; Malabon; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 35239

Effects of application of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocophala (Lam.)de Wit) leaves at different time on some soil properties and on the yield of upland rice


Hardjosuwignjo, S
Thesis; College; Laguna; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; 1980; xvp; 124p

Availability :
Library; Department of Agronomy; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 30548

A study on the growth and yield of corn intercropped with varying population of giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) on a hill side (dry season)


Dela Rosa, JM; Santiago, RM; Posas, MB
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 5 (2): 89 (1989)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 30914

State of the art abstract bibliography of sorghum research


Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna

Los Banos; Laguna; Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development; 1986; 152p; Crop Series No.10

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 30776

Growth and yield of corn intercropped with giant ipil-ipil on a hillside


De la Rosa, JM; Santiago, RM; Pesas, MB
Annals of Tropical Research 2 (1): 12-19 (1980)

Availability :
Library; Visayas State College of Agriculture; Baybay; Leyte; Philippines




NO. 35236

Effect of rate and date of incorporation of ipil-ipil on grain sorghum


Quilang, RR
MSc thesis; College; Laguna; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; 1981; xip; 58p

Availability :
Library; Department of Agronomy; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 35651

The effects of varying amounts of ipil-ipil meal on the growth,yield and protein content of broom corn (Sorghum vulgare) technicus at dough stages


Arroyo, NC
BSc thesis; Malabon; Metro Manila; Gregorio Araneta University Foundation; 1980; 29p

Availability :
Library; Gregorio Araneta University Foundation; Malabon; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 37168

Effect of two energy sources and two feeding frequencies on the reproductive performance, hematological and morphological changes of fresh ipil-ipil (L. leucocephala) leaves-fed goats (Capra hircus)


Robles, AY; Abilay, TA; Rosales, JL
RETRES Research abstract; UPLB; 1985; p118-149; UPLB-PCARR; Proj. No. 961; MISD

Abstract:
A total of 18 does fed rations of fresh ipil-ipil leaves alone, ipil-ipil leaves and corn and ipil-ipil leaves and molasses twice and four times daily were observed in the study. Findings showed that the energy sources and feeding frequencies did not significantly affect the pituitary weight of does. However, does fed twice daily with corn supplemented fresh ipil-ipil leaves had significantly lower pituitary weight and higher thyroid gland weight than does fed with ipil-ipil leaves alone. Does fed with only fresh ipil-ipil leaves four times daily had significantly higher adrenal weight compared to does in all the other treatments. Corn or molasses supplemented to fresh ipil-ipil leaves did not significantly affect the weight gains, dry matter intake, reproductive traits, hematological values, organ weights and reproductive functions of does. All tests of significance were made at 5% probability level.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 38225

Soil properties and corn performance as affected by leucaena leaves applied as nitrogen fertilizer at different rates and by different methods


Siagian, TH; Mabbayad, BB
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 5 (2): 53-57 (1980)

Abstract:
Field experiments to evaluate the effect of leucaena leaves applied as organic-N fertilizers at two rates (75 and 150 kg/ha) and by three methods (surface broadcast, incorporation with soil, and furrow placement) on some soil properties and on corn performance were conducted in the dry and wet seasons. The study also compared the effectiveness for corn production of leucaena leaves and urea. In both seasons, soil pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, application exchange capacity, water retention at field capacity and at wilting point, and available water were not significantly affected by rates of leucaena leaves application. Leucaena leaves when applied in furrows significantly increased soil organic matter and nitrogen than when broadcast on the soil surface or incorporated with soil in the wet season but not in dry. In both seasons, corn fertilized with leucaena leaves produced significantly higher total dry matter, leaf area index, 1,000-grain weight, and grain yield at 150 kg N/ha than at 75 kg N/ha. Weight of 1,000 grains and grain yield were lowest when leucaena leaves were broadcast on the soil surface. Weight of 1,000 grains and grain yield of corn fertilized with leucaena leaves at 150 kg N/ha were comparable to or were not significantly lower than those of corn fertilized with urea ar 150 kg N/ha. In both seasons, corn fertilized with leucaena leaves took up more of N,P,K, and Ca at 150 kg N/ha at 75 kg N/ha. Nitrogen recovery by corn plants was not significantly affected by rates of leucaena leaves application. Nitrogen uptake and recovery were lowest when leucaena leaves were broadcast on the soil surface. Nitrogen recovery by corn plants from leucaena leaves was significantly lower than that from urea soil surface. Nitrogen recovery by corn plants from leucaena leaves was significantly lower than that from urea.

Availability :
The Secretariat; Crop Science Society of the Philippines (CSSP); Institute of Plant Breeding, U.P. at Los Banos; College, Laguna; Philippines




NO. 38318

Effect of mulching and strip cropping with ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) on the yield of corn


Dofeliz, G; de la Cruz, J; Nesbitt, HJ
The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 8 (2): S2 (1983)

Abstract:
The yield of corn grown in soil receiving applications of ipil-ipil foliage was compared with corn grown without mulching and with the yield of a crop following peanuts. During the first three croppings there were no yield advantages with mulching. In the second cropping of the second year when ipil- ipil leaves were applied to the corn crop during the first 15 days after emergence and at tasseling, crop yields were increased by between 10 and 70%. These increases were similar in crops grown on areas on which peanuts were grown earlier in the year. In another area 5 rates of ipil-ipil leaves and two rates of P were applied to a corn crop. There was a big response to the application of ipil-ipil and phosphorus and a significant interaction between the two. The results of both experiments are discussed and comparison is made between the cut and carry technique of applying organic material and by strip cropping ipil-ipil with field crops.

Availability :
The Secretariat; Crop Science Society of the Philippines (CSSP); Institute of Plant Breeding; UP at Los Banos; College, Laguna; Philippines




NO. 39503

Effects of different levels of decomposed ipil-ipil leaves and chicken manure on corn


Someja,FS
Agriculture Research Compendium (1971-1983). MMSU, Batac, Ilocos Norte: Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC); 1981; p288-289

Abstract:
Different levels of decomposed ipil-ipil leaves and chicken manure were tested to determine the growth and yield performance of corn and the best level decomposed ipil-ipil leaves and chicken manure that will increase the yield of corn. Results showed highly significant differences on plant height at 30 DAE and significant at 60 and 90 DAE. The different levels of decomposed ipil-ipil leaves and chicken manure produced bigger and longer ears of corn. The length of corn ears and seed size did not show any significant differences among the treatments. As regards to the yield per plot and per hectare, treatments were highly significant. Plants applied with 10 t decomposed ipil-ipil leaves and chicken manure per hectare gave the highest yield per plot and per hectare at 82.30 gm and 5.12 t, respectively, resulting to a higher gross income, net income per hectare and net income per day when compared to the treatments. Lowest yield was obtained from the control with a mean yield of 2.99 tons.

Availability :
Library;Mariano Marcos State University;Batac;Ilocos Norte




NO. 39630

Interspecific competition of corn-peanut cropping system integrated with ipil-ipil hedgerows


Armachuelo,MCG
Visayas State College of Agriculture;Baybay;Leyte

Graduate Research Abstracts;Baybay;Leyte: Visayas State College of Agriculture;Vol. 1:68;1993

Abstract:
Evaluation and determination of the extent of competition between corn and peanut under intercropping scheme at varying population combination and of the competition effects of hedgerows on corn and peanut grown on the contour as well as the economics of hillside farming was conducted on the hillside of the forest reservation of the Visayas State College of Agriculture, Baybay, Leyte. The intercropping schemes included monoculture and intercropping corn and peanut planted with and without hedgerows on the contour at varying corn population level at 33,000, 40,000 and 50,000 plants per hectare. Under the cropping scheme employed, monoculture corn and peanut exhibited superior growth and yield over that of the intercropped components. However, when the yield of both crops were combined, higher profit were obtained compared to corn monoculture but not to sole peanut, due to the big difference of commercial values of the crops. Application of herbage from the hedgerows tended to increase yield of both crops with marked effects observed in corn. Although yield was not significantly affected by corn population levels, highest corn yield was obtained at 50,000 plants per hectare. Peanut yield was relatively higher when intercropped with corn at the lowest population. High LER values of 1.39 and 1.32 were obtained in these treatments, respectively. Effects of row position was distinct on the intercropped corn. Highest yield of corn was obtained in the rows positioned immediately above the hedgerows. On the other hand, the peanut intercrop was not much affected by row position.

Availability :
Library;Visayas State College of Agriculture;Baybay;Leyte




NO. 39634

Effects of decomposed ipil-ipil leaves on yellow flower-flint corn


Asuncion,JO
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center;Mariano Marcos State University;Batac; Ilocos Norte

Agriculture Research Compendium (1971-1983); MMSU;Batac;Ilocos Norte: Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC);p. 255;1981

Abstract:
Findings showed that application of 15 t ipil-ipil leaves per hectare resulted to taller plants at vegetative stage, broadest ear, heaviest ear and cob and highest computed yield per hectare, but these were not significantly different from plants applied with 10 t ipil-ipil leaves per hectare. Differences on plant height at maturity, ear length and shelling percentage were insignificant.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium;Mariano Marcos State University;Batac;Ilocos Norte




NO. 63435

Histological and ultra structure of white rat testis applicated feed of lamtorogung (Leucaena leucocephala) seeds content
Histologis dan ultra struktur testis tikus putih yang diberi pakan mengandung biji lamtorogung

Sarmanu; Hardjopranipto, S.; Adikora, TS.
Research Department of Airlangga University; Surabaya; Indonesia; 1987; 26p

Availability :
Airlangga University; Surabaya; East Java; Indonesia




NO. 63502

Effect of lamtoro (Leucaena) leaves supplementation in basal ration of of elephant grass and rice bran on increase of sheep body weight
Pengaruh suplementasi daun lamtoro pada ransum basal rumput gajah dan bekatul terhadap pertambahan bobot badan domba

Ifar, S.; Hartatik, S.; Nanik, S.; Van Bruchen, J.
Animal Nutrition Research Bulletin 7 (1): 7-12 (1987)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 66147

Gamal (Gliricidia maculata) leaves as animal feed
Daun gamal sebagai makanan ternak

Ujung Pandang Agricultural Information Service 14: ?p (1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 68989

Eight years of agricultural research on swamp areas: its contribution and development prospect within 1985-1993
Sewindu penelitian pertanian dilahan rawa, kontribusi dan prospek pengembangan 1985-1993

Ismail, Inu G; Alihamsyah, Trip; Adhi, IPG Widjaja; Suwarno; Herawati, Tati; Thahir, Ridwan; Sianturi, D.E
Research Project on Tidal and Swamps II Areas

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian (AARD); Syam, M (ed); Soetjipto Ph (ed); Harahap, Z (ed); Bogor; 1993; 128p

Availability :
Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD); Pasarminggu; Jakarta; Indonesia




NO. 90258

Practical approach in mass production of Trichoderma spp. for biological control of crop pathogens


Plete,AA;Cumagun,CJR;Dalisay,TU;Peralta,GA;Sinohin,AM;Lapiz,DB
Philippine Phytopathology 29(1 & 2):116;1993

Abstract:
Utilization of locally available materials in mass production of Trichoderma spp. by pelleting was developed. This technique utilized rice bran as substrate for the bioagent and gaw-gaw as the binding agent. The appropriate ratio of gaw-gaw with rice bran was 1:3. Virulence and viability of the biocontrol agent in the pellets were maintained up to three months. Pelleting was preferred over other methods so far developed, such as the use of rice hull, ipil-ipil, coir dust and saw dust, because the pellet provided food based for Trichoderma spp. even after application in the soil.

Availability :
Main library;University of the Philippines;Los Banos;College;Laguna




NO. 101072

Potential of pigment concentrates as substitute of synthetic pigment source for egg yolk colouring
Potensi konsentrat pigmen sebagai pengganti sumber pigmen sintetik untuk pewarnaan kuning telur

Susana, IWR; Wina, E.; Tangendjaja
Research Institute for Livestock; Ciawi; Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Peternakan, Pengolahan dan Komunikasi Hasil-Hasil Penelitian [Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Science and Technology of Animal Husbandry, Processing and Communication of Research Results], Ciawi Bogor 25-26 Januari 1994; Bakrie,B(ed); Haryanto,B (ed); Wina,E(ed); Kompiang,I.P.(ed); Dwiyanto,K(ed); Bogor; Balai Penelitian Ternak; 1994; Vol.1; p. 745-751

Availability :
Research Centre for Livestock; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2457

The prospects of Leucaena leucocephala, Gmelina arborea and Schizolobium sp. as sources of wood for pulp
Prospek pengembangan Leucaena leucocephala (var.K28,K8), Gmelina arborea dan Schizolobium sp. sebagai sumber kayu pulp

Alrasjid, H
Forest Research Institute; Bogor; Indonesia

Berita Selulosa [Cellulose News] 17 (1): 1-6 (1981)

Availability :
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4392

Effect of the amount of active alkali on the bleaching of sulphate pulps of timbers from peoples' plantations
Pengaruh jumlah alkali aktif terhadap pemutihan pulp sulfat dari kayu tanaman rakyat

Elias
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1980; 98p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 4868

Observation on the implementation of regreening in Babakan Madang, Karang Tengah and Bojong Koneng villages, Citeureup Subdistrict, Citeureup Subwatershed, Bekasi Watershed
Tinjauan pelaksanaan penghijauan di desa Babakan Madang, Desa Karang Tengah dan Desa Bojong, Kecamatan Citeureup, Sub DAS Citeureup, Daerah Aliran Sungai Bekasi

Polem, T.Y
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1984; 85p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 9774

Getting to know some plants for regreening
Mengenal beberapa jenis tanaman penghijauan

Anonymous
West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service; 1983; 36p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 31653

Propagation of some forest tree species in the Philippines


Reyes, I.E
Conservation Circular 11 (11): 4-5 (1975)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Ba¤os; College; Laguna




NO. 33070

Physico-mechanical properties and possible uses of 11 plantation-grown species in the Philippines


Tamolang, F.B; Rocafort, J.E
FPRDI Journal 16 (1-2): 75-85 (1987)

Availability :
Library; Scientific and Technology Information Institute; Department of Science and Technology; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 2219

Effectiveness of shrubs and agroforestry in Kadipaten village (upper Citanduy sub-watershed) in reducing run-off and erosion
Efektivitas semak dan agroforestry di desa Kadipaten (sub DAS Citanduy Hulu) dalam memperkecil aliran permukaan dan erosi

Anwar, C; Baheramsyah, K; Hamzah, Z
Forest Research and Development Centre; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Penelitian Hutan [Forest Research Bulletin] (511): 1-8 (1989)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 64183

Effect of nitro-aromatic subtances in various consentrations and soaking periods on growth of pepper (Piper nigrum L.) cuttings
Pengaruh nitro aromatic dalam berbagai konsentrasi dan lama perendaman terhadap pertumbuhan turus tanaman lada (Piper nigrum L.)

Riyantoni
Yogyakarta Agricultural College; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

S1 thesis; Yogyakarta; Yogyakarta Agricultural College; 1986; 44p

Availability :
Yogyakarta Agricultural College; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 4224

Reforestation in the watershed areas of Wair Klau,Wair Pelit and Iligetang,Flores,Nusa Tenggara Timur
Reboisasi hutan di daerah aliran sungai-sungai Wair Klau,Wair Pelit dan Iligetang,Flores,Nusa Tenggara Timur

Husaeni,EA
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1970; 66p

Availability :
Faculty of Forestry;Bogor Agricultural University;Indonesia




NO. 37244

Performance of some medicinal plants under varying degrees of shade and fertilizer levels


Maghirang, R.G
PROJECT Database; Philippine Council for Health and Resources Development; DOST Main Bldg; Bicutan; Metro Manila; Philippines

Abstract:
The fertilizer and/or light requirements of 20 medicinal plants were studied. The plants were subjected to varying levels of light intensity and different fertilizer materials and application rates. Growth performance and amount of "active constituent" (total alkaloid and volatile oil content) were monitored at regular intervals. Cassia alata L. (akapulko), Thevetia peruviana (Pers) Merr. (campanilla), Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) (chichirica), Artemisia vulgaris L. (damong maria), Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk.) de Witt (ipil-ipil), Vitex negundo L. (lagundi), Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir (pandakaki) and Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC (sambong) are sun loving plants. Ocimum basilicum L. (balanoy), Alstonia scholaris L. R. Br. (dita), Kibatalia blancoi Rolfe Merr. (laniting gubat), and Carmona retusa (Vahl.) Masam (tsaang gubat) have better performance under partial shade. Some plants grow better under full sun, but their "active principle" is higher under partial shade. These are Datura metel L. (talumpunay), and Mentha cordifolia Opiz (yerba buena). Most of the plants respond best to various application rates of complete fertilizer (14-14-14). These are balanoy at 20 g/plant, damong maria at 10 g/plant, lagundi at 20 g/plant, Quisqualis indica L. (niyog-niyogan) at 10 g/plant, Coleus amboinicus Lour. (oregano) at 10 g/ plant, Ocimum sanctum L. (sulasi) at 10 g/plant, talumpunay at 20 g/plant, tsaang gubat at 10 g/plant and yerba buena at 20 g/plant. Instead of complete fertilizer, lagundi can also be fertilized with 750 g/plant ipil-ipil leaves and yerba buena with 10 g/plant ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) or 40 g/plant chicken manure. Sambong responds best to 40 g/plant ammonium sulfate or 100 g/plant solophos (0-18-0).

Availability :
LAB. NAME: UPLB-CA; LAB. LOC.: Los Ba¤os, Laguna; Philippines




NO. 22280

Establishment and growth of Leucaena and Gliricidia alley cropped with pepper and sorghum


Atta-Krah, A.N; Kolawole, G.D
International Livestock Centre of Africa (ILCA); PMB 5320; Ibadan; Nigeria

Leucaena Research Reports 8: 46-48 (1987)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 31638

The black pepper culture in the College of Agriculture at Los Banos


David, P.A
Philippine Agriculturist 35 (3): 130-136 (1951)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Ba¤os; College; Laguna




NO. 2112

Effect of shading, ground-cover and mulching on clove cultivation
Pengaruh peneduh, penutup tanah dan mulch dalam budidaya cengkeh

Sudjaspatra, S
Agronomy Department; Faculty of Agriculture; Bogor Agricultural University; Bogor; Indonesia

Buletin Agronomi [Agronomy Bulletin] 2 (4): 1-3 (1964)

Availability :
Center for Agricultural Library and Research Communication; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 11560

Properties of Thai medicinal plants
Pramuan sapphakhum yathai

Samakhom Rongrian Phaet Phaen Boran
Bangkok; Samakom Rongrian Phaet Phaenboran; 1964; TISTR Bibliographical Series No.6; 1980; p62-63; Medicinal plants in Thailand No.1; Abstract No.207-215

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 66171

Stimulating the root growth of cuttings through plant growth regulator
Merangsang zat pertumbuhan akar stek dengan zat pengatur tumbuh

Anonymous
South Sumatera Agricultural Information Service 13: ?p (1990)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 332

A guide to the cultivation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews)
Pedoman bercocok tanam vanili (Vanilla planifolia Andrews)

Zamarel
Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Circular Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Circular of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] (28): 1-17 (1974)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 369

Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews)
Panili (Vanilla planifolia Andrews)

Kartono, G; Isdijoso, SH
Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contribution of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] (27): 65-86 (1977)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 60706

Role of 'lamtoro' (Leucaena leucocephala) as living stake for vanilla and herbs
Peranan lamtoro sebagai tiang panjat tanaman panili dan pohon terna

Rosman, R
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Media Komunikasi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Industri [Communication Media of the Research and Development for Industrial Crops] (1): 49-54 (1988)

Availability :
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 66053

Guide to vanilla planting
Pedoman bertanam panili

Anonymous
West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service 18: ?p (1988-1989)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66088

Vanilla cultivation
Budidaya tanaman panili

Anonymous
Bengkulu Agricultural Information Service 21: ?p (1989-1990)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 66115

Vanilla planting
Bertanam panili

Anonymous
Ambon Agricultural Information Service 4: ?p (1988)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 33994

List of ten medicinal plants recommended by the Ministry of Health


Ticzon, R.R
Ticzon herbal manual; [place; publisher ??]; 1986; p4-7

Availability :
National Library; Filipiniana and Asia Division; Ermita; Manila; Philippines




NO. 35963

Yield response of ginger to the varying levels of dried ipil-ipil leaves


Aguilar, C.M
BSc thesis; Pili; Camarines Sur State Agricultural College; 1986; 31p

Availability :
Library; Camarines Sur State Agricultural College; Pili; Philippines




NO. 90695

Economics of ginger production in Iniligan, Badiangan, Iloilo


Barranco, M.L.B
West Visayas State University; La Paz; Iloilo City

WVSU Research Abstracts (1955-1985) Vol 2: 58-59 (1990)

Abstract:
The study sought to provide baseline information on the farm operations, production and marketing practices employed by the 55 ginger producers with an area of not less than 1,000 sq m and the problems pertinent to ginger production and marketing. Growing ginger is associated with native ipil-ipil as shade crop and with companion crops. Farm operations involved clearing, land preparations, planting, weeding and harvesting. Labor was provided by the operator and his family, exchange and hired labor. Most of the labor was spent for harvesting followed by land preparation, planting, weeding and hauling. The majority sell their produce right after harvest. Marketing outlets are retafilers, roadside traders, assemblers, sub-agents and direct consumers. Average prices received from all outlets is P= 2.62/kilo. Average production was 4,136 kg/farm or 29,480 kg/ha. Cost of seed-pieces constituted the single highest cost of production. This accounted for 95% of the total production cost. Seed-pieces was valued at P= 4,611.20/farm orP= 23,056.00/ha. Net income for all farms was P= 5,991.26 orP= 53,012.29/ha. No farmer had incurred losses.

Availability :
Western Visayas Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Department of Agriculture; Hamungaya; Jaro; Iloilo City




NO. 30509

Anatomy supports taxonomy: a comparative anatomical study of ten leguminous trees


Rasa,EA
Philippine Journal of Science 109(1-2):23-32(1980)

Availability :
Library;University of the Philippines at Los Banos;College;Laguna




NO. 62101

Pod peel anatomy of various Leguminous species
Anatomi kulit buah beberapa spesies dari familia Leguminosae

Lestari, S.
S1 Thesis; Yogyakarta; Faculty of Biology; Gadjah Mada University; Indonesia; 1983; 37p

Availability :
Faculty of Biology; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 30511

Antimutagenic effects of eighteen Philippine plants


Sylianco,CYL;Concha,JA;Jocano,AP;Lim,CM
Philippine Journal of Science 115(4):293-298(1986)

Availability :
Library;University of the Philippines at Los Banos;College;Laguna




NO. 33312

Clinical pharmacologic studies on medicinal plants


Maramba,CNP
Proceedings of the Seminar and Press Conference on Herbal Medicine,November 10,1982

Availability :
Library;College of Medicine;University of the Philippines;Ermita; Manila




NO. 33455

Medicinal plants
Mga halamang panlunas

Quijano,JF
Bulletin of the Nutrition Foundation of the Philippines 23(4):7,9(1983)

Availability :
Library;College of Medicine;University of the Philippines;Ermita;Manila




NO. 92310

Herbal medicine make a comeback


Romulo,BD
Reader's Digest 49-54 (1989); HERDIN Database; PC911734; MFN 007437

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; DOST Complex; Bicutan; Taguig; Metro Manila, R-324




NO. 36025

The effects of foliar fertilizers on the growth and flowering of hybrid rose under different soil media


Brusas,WP
Pili; Camarines Sur State Agricultural College; 1980; iiip; 35p

Availability :
Library;Camarines Sur State Agricultural College;Pili;Philippines




NO. 242

Sandalwood,a pride of East Nusa Tenggara
Cendana,kebanggaan daerah Nusa Tenggara Timur

Roemantyo
Bogor Botanical Gardens; Indonesia

Buletin Kebun Raya [Bulletin of the Botanical Gardens] 6(5):127-131(1984)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense;Indonesia




NO. 3545

Tree breeding as a basis for the success of forest development in Indonesia
Pemuliaan pohon sebagai dasar keberhasilan pembangunan hutan di Indonesia

Soeseno,OH
Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Perumusan dan Kumpulan Makalah Sarasehan I di Wanagama I; Buku I [Proceedings of the Workshop I,Wanagama I; Book I]; Yogyakrata; 1983; p321-350

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology;Bogor;Indonesia




NO. 8111

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as an associate plant of sandalwood (Santalum album) seedlings
Gude (Cajanus cajan) sebagai tanaman pendamping bibit cendana (Santalum album)

Roedjito, SW; Rumawas, F
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia

Prosiding Simposium dan Seminar Nasional Hortikultura Indonesia [Proceedings of the National Symposium and Seminar on Horticulture in Indonesia]; Bintoro, MH et al.(eds); Perhorti; Bogor; 1990; p. 278-287

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 92899

Seedling identification of major weeds in plantations of fast growing tree species in Mt. Makiling, Philippines I. Monocotyledons


Escobin, RP
The Philippine Journal of Science 127 (2): 111-131 (1998)

Abstract:
The morphological characters of the seedlings of 11 species under 10 genera and 3 families of major mon °Cotyledonous weeds in plantations of fast growing tree species in Mt. Makiling, Luzon, Philippines were studied. Observations on the external characters were used to describe and distinguish each species for easy recognition in the field. The species exhibited the hypogeal type of germination distinct from the epigeal type exhibited by the dicotyledonous weeds. Characters considered diagnostic for species identification include the mes °Cotyl, cotyledonary stalk, culm or stem and leaf. A seedling key to species identification is presented. Likewise, seedling description and illustration for each species are provided.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 38943

The effect of ipil-ipil leaves as soil amendment on the growth and yield of garlic


Abucay, WR
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC)

Agriculture Research Compendium (1971-1983); MMSU; Batac; Ilocos Norte; 1980; p202

Abstract:
The plants except the contro1, were treated with the following fertilizer rate/ha; + Control2 - 30-3330-30 kg NPK/ha; 30-30-30 kg NPK/ha + 5 tons ipil-ipil; 30-30-30 kg/ha + 10 tons ipil-ipil; 30-30-30 kg/ha + 15 tons ipil-ipil; 30-30-30 kg/ha + 20 tons ipil-ipil. Plant height was affected by ipil-ipil leaves at 30 and 60 DAE. The tallest plants were obtained from those applied with 20 t of ipil-ipil leaves/ha and the shortest were from the control. The same treatment produced the highest computed yield and the largest bulbs.

Availability :
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 91616

Bonsai growing: big money from tiny trees


Tacio, HD
Greenfields 22 (8): 16-18 (1994)

Abstract:
Bonsai growing has been introduced by Chinese in the Philippines. It is highly profitable but takes a long time to grow.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Library




NO. 94010

A double blind randomized controlled trial of ipil-ipil and niyog-niyogan in the treatment of ascariasis among children 3-7 years old


Bonangna, MR
Inventory of Health Researches 1997-1998; p 91

Abstract:
The traditional medicines prescribed by native d °Ctors called herbolarios are the preferred treatment for the inflicted individual especially when they are of low-socio economic status. Due to the astronomical price increase of pharmaceutical preparations, the Department of Health spearheaded a programmewherein the use of indigenous plants as medicines are being promoted. This peer will therefore focus on the two existing traditional remedies for parasitic infestation that has been scientifically proven in individual testings and to compare it with a leading antihelminthic drug. Adverse effects will also be noted to evaluate its safety. A randomized double blind controlled trial was conducted at phase 7-8, Bagong Silang, Caloocan City from January 1997 to April 1997. Patients were recruited and thorough history and physical examination was done. Pre-medication stool exam was done. Patients were randomized through either pyrantel pamoate group (10mg/kg/dose), ipil-ipil groups and niyog-niyogan group. All medications were given in single doses. A repeat fecalysis will be done after seven days. Patients included were (1) those 3-7 years old living at phase 7-8, Bagong Silang, Caloocan City (2) their fecalysis showed either a single or mixed infections, (3)signed informed consent (4) they should not have any contraindication in taking the drugs. Excluded were those (1) children previously given antihelminthic in the past 3 months (2) children with contaminant illness (3) with known hypersensitivity to the drugs. The statistical test applied to compare group observations were: chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, t-test for independent samples, and t-test for independent samples, and t-test for paired observation.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology
Email: pchrd@pchrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 93738

Growth and yield of Gliricidia sepium in association with grasses, ground legumes and trees


Nitis, IM; Lana, K; Suarna, M; Sukanten, W; Putra, S
Proceedings; Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp. Management and Improvement; Turrialba, Costa Rica, 21-27 June, 1987; Withington, D; Glover, N; Brewbaker, JL (eds.); Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Special Publication (87-01); Waiwanalo, USA; p 205-211

Abstract:
A three strata forage experiment was carried out for 17 months to study the association of grass and ground legumes (1st stratum), the shrubby legumes Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium (2nd stratum) and three tree species (3rd stratum) in this system. Thirty-two plots, each with 2500 m² size, were randomly allocated in flat (13 plots), sloping (10 plots) and rolling land with both flat and sloping sections (9 plots). Each plot was divided into a 1600m² core area planted with a cash crop and a 900m² peripheral area with a circumference of 200m. Peripheral areas were divided into 20 lots of 45m² and planted with grass and ground legumes. The perimeter was planted with trees at 5m spacing. Shrubby legumes were planted at a 10cm spacing between trees. Leaf and branch yields of gliricidia in association with grass and legume were 31-35% and 33-50%, respectively, more than those in association with trees. Effect of individual grass (Cenchrus and Panicum), legume (Graham stylo, Verano stylo and Centrosema) and tree (Ficus, Lannea and Hibiscus) species depended on the season. Root nodule formations were affected (P>0.05) by the associations, but leaf chemical compositions were not. During the wet season, leaf yields on the flat and rolling plots were 32 and 23% higher, respectively, than yields on sloping plots. Leaf chemical composition was similar.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 37450

Nitrogen mineralization from azolla and ipil-ipil incorporated in two soil types under field conditions


Lanuza, RL; Cabia, EM
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; La Trinidad;Benguet;Philippines

The Philippine Journal of Crop Science 12(1): 38;1987

Abstract:
Mineralization of nitrogen from the incorporated organic materials was not significantly affected by soil type but it was noted that Umingan clay loam slightly enhanced N mineralization compared to Maasin clay. In Umingan clay loam, the nitrogen released from azolla and ipil-ipil leaves 8 weeks after incorporation were 8.22 and 26.55 % of the organic N in the materials, respectively. When incorporated in Maasin clay, nitrogen recoveries from azolla and ipil-ipil leaves for the same period were only 15.29 and 26.25 %, respectively. Peak Mineralization of N from both organic materials were noted at 4 weeks after incorporation into the soil.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 37587

Deworm your piglets with ipil-ipil seeds


Balweg, BM
Benguet State University;La Trinidad;Benguet;Philippines

Mountain State Agricultural College Farm News Bulletin 3(6): ?;1982

Abstract:
Ipil-ipil seeds are effective in liminating round worms in piglets, a finding by Gerardo Beray at La Trinidad,Benguet. Beray found that treating worm-infested piglets with roasted and pulverized ipil-ipil seed at one and a half tablespoons diluted in 230 milliliter of water resulted in the elimination of high number of worms and eggs of roundworms. Ho found out too, that increasing the amount of ipil-ipil seeds to be diluted in the same amount of water can result in the elimination of more worms but produce adverse reactions to piglets like vomiting, salivation, loss of appetite and diarrhea. These effects are especially observed in piglets of poor health. This local drug is administered through the mouth two hours after feeding using a drenching gun. However, in plce of a drenching gun, one can naturally open the mouth of the piglets and administer the drug. Deworming of pigs is recommended at the early piglet stage to prevent wider spread of internal parasites.

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 37597

Some components of high yield cacao production in Southern Philippines


Balane, ME; Pamplona, PP
Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines

The Philippine Journal of Science 14 (1): 18;1989

Abstract:
Intensive surveys were carried out in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantations in MIndanao to determine environmental conditions and management practices responsible for high yields of 4.0 to 6.0 t/ha per year of gried beans. Most plantations are situated under coconut while other plantations utilized ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephalla) as shade. Few plantations are situated from sea level to 120 feet above sea level and with good source of irrigation water. Among management practices include the use of high yielding clones hybrids, planting at high density, adequate level of fertilization, intensive irrigation during dry months, pruning to maintain an LAI of 5 to 6 recyling of less productive trees. High yielding clones were identified in plantations by screening thousands of germplasm materials as collected locally and abroad. By gradual elimination, only few clones were identified and used. On the aspect of population density, trials were carried out at varying densities from 830 to 6,000 plants per hectare resulting to the selection of lower population densities from 1,250 to 2,500 trees/ha. Regarding rehabilitation, low yielding trees in the plantations were gradually

Availability :
Highland Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium; Benguet State University




NO. 23173


A preliminary survey on nodulation of VA mycorrhiza in legume roots

Nurani, A
Malaysian Forester 46(2): 171-174(1983)

Abstract:
[In a survey of 41 leguminous species in the nursery at Kepong, Malaysia, nodulation was observed in all species of Papilionoideae, 14 out of 17 species of Mimosoideae, the exception being Adenanthera spp. and [the herb] Neptunia natans, and only one (Delonix regia) out of 16 species of Caesalpinioideae. All the species contained VA mycorrhiza (rarely in Saraca sp.)] Acacia mangium is mentioned regarding soil nutrient and mycorrhizal infection of the plantation site. Mycorrhizal infection and spore per 100 g were outperformed only by the Leucaena leucocephala site.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23198

Performance of Acacia mangium Willd. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit at Niah Forest Reserve, Sarawak


Halenda, C
Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports No. 6; 1988; p15-17

Abstract:
A trial was established in the Niah Forest Reserve with the aim to determine the most successful treatment (out of a total 5 treatments) for biomass production, site stabilization and site fertility. It was carried out in abandoned shifting cultivation sites. The five treatments were; 1. Planting Acacia mangium, at 3.7x3.7 m spacing, 2. Planting Leucaena leucocephala, at 3.7x3.7 m spacing, 3. Planting Gmelina arborea at 3.7x3.7 m spacing, 4. Line-planting of Araucaria cunninghamii., and 5. Natural regeneration. The paper discusses the results for Acacia mangium and Leucaena leucocephala only. Within the stand of both species on the midslope of low hills (highly acid red-yellow podsolic soil) sample plots of 10x20 m were established (replicated). From each plots, soil samples were taken for chemical analysis. Within each plot 10 (1x1 m) subplots were randomly placed and lower vegetation biomass and small-litter standing crop collected. In the 10x20 m plots all trees were harvested and weighed. Fresh weight for the following components were determined; 1. leaves, 2. twigs , 1 cm diameter over bark, 3. branches 1-3 cm diameter over bark, 4. dead branches, 5. stem, and 6. fruits and flowers. Over-dry weights of each component were taken. Acacia mangium is superior to Leucaena leucocephala in all aspects. It has much better growth rates and over dry biomass was 15 times greater than that of L. leucocephale. The litter-layer seemed effective in stabilizing the site against erosion growth.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 23862

Growth of Leucaena leucocephala in relation to soil pH nutrient levels and rhizobium concentration


Noraini, A; Ng, FSP
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

The Malaysian Forester 44(4): 516-523(1981)

Abstract:
A two-years old plot of Leucaena leucocephala of the Hawaian Giant cultivar was found to exhibit a gradient in height and vigour from one end of the plot to the other. Trees at the "good" end were 6 - 12 m tall while those at the "bad" end were 1 - 3 m tall. This gradient was correlated with gradients in soil pH (4.85 to 4.44), soil Rhizobium concentration (5.8 x 102 to 2.4 x 102) and available N (0.22-0.11 ppm). Foliar analysis revealed higher accumulations of AI and Mn in trees at the "bad" end.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24078

The growth of Araucaria species in mixture with Leucaena leucocephala


Hashim, MN
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Proceedings International Workshop,BIO-REFOR,Kangar,Malaysia;Nov. 28- Dec.1 1994; p64-66

Abstract:
A field trial was conducted using different planting stocks of Araucaria species; seedlings of Araucaria cunninghamii and A. hunstenii and rooted shoot cuttings of A. hunstenii. The species were interplanted with Leucaena leucocephala at three different densities. The study was conducted in a lowland site of Sungai Buloh Forest Reserve in the state of Selangor. Growth performance at age six years indicated that the rooted cuttings of A. hunstenii were superior to the other two planting stocks in terms of survival, height and diameter growth. Moreover, there was a positive indication that the performance of Araucaria species was improved with the density of Leucaena planting. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 38904

The influence of Hawaiian ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit) on the herbage yield of napiergrass in Ilocos Norte


Taguicana, NC
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC)

Agriculture Research Compendium (1971-1983);ILARC;MMSU;Batac;Ilocos Norte; 1979;p170

Abstract:
The height of napier grass increased as the amount of fertilizer increased. Plants that received the greatest amount of fertilizer produced dark green leaves and more tillers, had faster rate of growth while those receiving less amount of fertilizer had stunted growth. Commercial fertilization significantly increased the herbage yield of napier ipil-ipil mixture.

Availability :
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 38905

The effects of green feeds (malunggay, ipil-ipil and acacia) on the performance of broilers


Visco, LL
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center (ILARC)

Agriculture Research Compendium (1971-1983);ILARC;MMSU;Batac;Ilocos Norte; 1979;p171-172

Abstract:
The green feeds used were: malunggay, ipil-ipil and acacia. Birds fed with five percent malunggay leaves consumed the least amount of feed, gave the highest final weight and highest gain in weight and were the most efficient in converting feeds into meat. This followed by the birds fed with five percent ipil-ipil. Furthermore, cost and returns analysis showed that birds in Treatment D (5% malunggay) gave the highest net profit of P3.97 per bird.

Availability :
Ilocos Agricultural Research Center, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 24688

Seed-borne fungi of some Malaysian forest tree species


Lee, SS; Abdul Manap, A
Forest Research Institute Malaysia;Kepong;Selangor

Proceedings of Biotrop Symposium on Forest Pests and Diseases in Southeast Asia;14-16 October 1981;p116-128

Abstract:
A survey of the seed-borne fungi of seven species of Malay sian forest tree species was carried out. A total of thirty- three species of fungi were obtained, nine of which are poten tially pathogenic. Six species of fungi not previously recorded in Malaysia were discovered. These were Beltraniella nilgrica Pirozynski and Patil, Chaetomium trilaterale Chivers, Cylindro cladium scoparium Morgan, Cryptodiaporthe sp., Gliocephalo trichum simplex (J. Meyer) Wiley and Simmons and Gliocladium sp.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 24848

Charactereristies and cryoexposed behaviour of Leucaena leuco cephala seeds


Bulan, P; Bujang, S
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak;94300 Kota Samarahan Sarawak

IUFRO Seed Symposium 1998 "Recalcitrant Seeds";12-15 October 1998;Kuala Lumpur

Abstract:
A combination of recalcitrant and orthodox 'desiccation- sensitive but liquid nitrogen-tolerant' phenomena was exhibited in Leucaena leucocephala seeds. The average seed moisture cont ent was 18.5% and germination was 26.1% for the tree seed lots tested. The seed was 7.45 mm long, 4.60 mm wide and 1.87 mm thick with weight of 4.59 g on average. In this experiment, seeds were subjected to three dehydration treatments and non- dehydrated seeds were used as controls prior to storage in liquid nitrogen for 30 min. It was observed that seeds de hydrated for 24 h using silica gel resulted in 13.2% moisture content with 27% germination as compared to dehydration treat ments in laminar air-flow and in 2.0 M sucrose which gave 9.8 and 10.4% moisture content and germination of 13.9 and 14.8% respectively. However, the control non-dehydrated seeds with 18.5% moisture content gave 30.8% germination. Studies also indicated that when using slow freezing technique before direct plunging into liquid nitrogen, the dehydrated seeds which were kept for 14 weeks, were able to give better viability and re sulted in 29% germination as compared to 18% germination for the untreated seeds. Regression analysis projected that seeds of L. leucocephala can either be stored for 36 weeks at room tempera ture (28'-32'C) or cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for up to 9 y following rapid freezing and for 12 y after controlled slow freezing treatments.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 39609

Survival and growth of cashew intercropped with giant ipil-ipil at different spacings


Bucad, AU
Mariano Marcos State University;Batac;Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Research Abstracts (1986-1987); Batac, Ilocos Norte, Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU), 1987; p 66-67

Abstract:
This study determined the effect of intercropping on the growth and survival of cashew intercropped with ipil-ipil at different spacing intervals. Spacing did not significantly affect the survival and growth of both species 1.5 years after planting. The 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing under the giant ipil-ipil exhibited higher percent survival than the 2 m x 2 m spacing. The reverse was true for cashew. Height increment of both species was higher at 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing than at 2 m x 2 m spacing. On the other hand, diameter increment at 2 m x 2 m spacing was higher than the 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 90231

Note: Effect of temperature and inoculum level on the growth of Rhizobium loti strains bl 180 and tal 1145


Lales, EH; McNeil, B; Tilo, SN
The Philippine Agriculturist 72(3): 367-371 July-September;1989

Abstract:
The mass cultivation of Rhizobium loti strians BL1 80 and TAL 1145 as inoculants for ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.) was carried out in a 12-L fermentor at 26 and 30 C unisng initial inoculum concentrations of 2 and 4% (V/V). Both strains grew faster at 26 than at 30 C. At 26 C, and initial inoculum concentration than a 2% inoculum level.

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 90717

Economic analysis of ipil-ipil feed supplementation of native caracows, Gandara, Samar


Parilla, LS; Posas, OB; Ampong, RM
Ann. Trop. Res. 10(1);1988

Abstract:
The average milk and cheese production was significantly higher in treated caracows than in untreated ones due to the increase in the protein intake of the treated animals thus increasing the solid content of the milk. Gathering and feeding ipil-ipil leaves to caracows, milking the caracows, and processing milk into cheese were the activities affected when ipil-ipil feed supplementation was introduced. Partial budget analysis shows that net benefits derived from ipil-ipil feed supplementation were significantly higher in treated caracows than in the untreated ones. Marginal rate of return was very high indicating that ipil-ipil feed supplementation in Gandara, Samar is economically feasible, Ceteris paribus. Sensitivity analysis gave an estimate of the benefits a carabao raiser gets as prices of output and cost of input change.

Availability :
Visayas Coordinated Agricultural Research Program-Leyte State University




NO. 90795

How do Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium inoculation affect the growth of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) seedlings


Siababa, NS; De la Cruz, RE
NSTA Technology Journal 11(4): 12-17;1986

Abstract:
The effects of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium inoculation on height, diameter, dry matter yield, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and uptakes of ipil-ipil seedlings were investigated in pot experiment. Plants inoculated with Rhizobium significantly increased nitrogen content at the roots while those inoculated with mycorrhiza significantly increased in height by 216%, in diameter by 45% and in phosphorus content of roots and shoots. However, significantly higher height was observed in plants inoculated with both mycorrhiza and Rhizobium 307%) as compared with those inoculated with either mycorrhiza (216%) or Rhizobium (32%). Combined inoculation also resulted in significantly higher dry matter yield and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than those inoculated with Rhizobium and those unninocualted but this was not significantly diferent from those inoculated with mycorrhiza alone. Inoculation with mycorrhiza plus Rhizobium increased nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes by 223% and 560%, respectively. The increase in nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes consequently resulted in higher dry matter yield of ipil- ipil seedlings. These results suggest a possible synergistic interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium in enhancing growth of ipil-ipil seedlings.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 90860

Survey on the indigenous pest control practices of farmers in Region 2


Ubiqa, CD
Philippine Tobacco Abstracts 9;1989-1990

Abstract:
Three provinces in Region 2, namely, Cagayan, Isabela, and Ifugao were surveyed to determine the actual farmers' use of botanical pesticides and other indigenous practices in pest control. Of the 106 farmer-respondents, only 19 (18%) were using botanical pesticides. Most of their reasons for not using botanicals were the lack of knowledge about it and the laborious preparation needed. However, those who used botanicals as a pest control method claimed it to be effective and a very good alternative for commercial pesticides. The plants used were kakawate, siling-labuyo, ipil-ipil, tobacco, dangla, red lauan, maratanong, lamut and water hyacinth + makahiya/acacia bark. These botanicals were used against pests of rice, corn, legumes, vegetable, and stored grains/seeds. The methods used in applying these plant materials were as follows: broadcasting/spreading the fresh leaves in the water surface until they decay; spraying; and mixing with the seeds. This survey also revealed that the use of commercial synthetic pesticides was still the most common and predominant method of pest control. Other pest control practices included handpicking, using tide for aphids, mixing wood ash with DDT, mixing oil with seeds, and other cultural practices like crop rotation, intercropping, roguing, and thorough sundrying/airdrying of grains/seeds.

Availability :
National Tobacco Administration; Scout Reyes St. Corner Panay Avenue; Quezon City




NO. 91049

Biocidal properties of mimosine: a review


Mendoza, EMT; Ilag, LL
Kalikasan, Philippe. J. Biol. 11(2-3): 235;1982

Abstract:
Experimental evidences show the strong inhibitory action of mimosine on the growth and development of several fungal pathogens of field legumes; the substance acts as an eradicant or protectant. Mimosine affects several critical biochemical processes in the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, including inhibition of enzyme activities and reduction of ATP, DNA and protein synthesis.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 91050

Effect of mimosine on in vitro dry matter digestibility of ipil-ipil


Escaqo, DR; Trung, LT
DSAC Research Journal 6(1): 1-5;1992

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the effect of mimosine content on the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of ipil-ipil. Mimosine content was determined using the method described by Yoshida (1944). Differences between treatment means were determined using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation was found to exist between IVDMD and total mimosine content. Native ipil-ipil had significantly lower (P < 0.05) digestibility vaue (62.03 percent) than improved ipil-ipil (58-84 percent). Mimosine was found to have an adverse effect on digestibility.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 91601

Stylo hay or ipil-ipil leaf meal as supplement to rice straw and concentrate for growing fattening cattle


Taylan, FM
MMSU Journal of the College of Agriculture 1(3): 42-49;1982

Abstract:
The liveweight gains and feed conversion efficiency of cattle fed with rice straw plus concentrate and supplemented with ipil-ipil leaf meal or stylo hay treated and untreated with formaldehyde at different forms and in vivo and in vitro digestibilities of stylo hay rations treated and untreated with formaldehyde at different forms were determined. Results showed that the average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency of animals fed with ipil-ipil leaf meal supplemented rations were significantly higher than stylo hay supplemented rations. In vitro dry matter digestibility showed a significant recduction which was also noted in the in vivo digestibility. However, a significant increase in dry matter, protein and crude fiber digestabilities were noted when stylo hay was used as supplement.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 91602

Supplementary values of ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit] and/or dried poultry manure to rice straw for dairy heifers


Trung, LT; Abenir, EE; Palo, LP; Matias, JM; Rivera, CC; Lapinid, RR
The Philippine Agriculturist 67(4): 379-390;1984

Abstract:
Supplementary values of ipil-ipil leaf meal (ILM) and dried poultry manure (DPM) to rice straw were evaluated on 20 crossbred yearling dairy heifers. Rice straw was maintained at 35% of total ration dry matter. The concentrate portion was varied as follows: ration 1: 45% ILM and 20% others, ration 2a: 45% ILM and 20% others, ration 3: 22.5% ILM, 22.5% DPM and 20% others, and ration 4: 65% others (control). After the first 3 months, ration 2a was found unsatisfactory based on dry matter intake and growth rate and therefore was replaced by ration 2b: 30% ILM, 15% DPM and 20% others. Dry matter intakes and average daily gain did not differ significantly between treatment means, except for ration 2a during the first 3 months. Parameters of reproductive performance did not reveal any clear-cut differences between treatments. Pregnancy rates ranged from 40 to 60% and the number of services per conception from 1.0 to 2.0. The heifers were expected to calve for the first time at 24.3 to 30.4 months of age. Based on cost gain ration under commercial scale production, ratio 1 was found to be significantly more expensive than the rest of the treatments due to the high cost of ILM. Under backyard scale production, however, the control ration (4), was found to be significantly more expensive mainly due to the cost of rice bran and copra meal. A total of 80% dry matter of a ration for dairy replacement heifers can be derived from rice straw (35%), DPM (15 to 22.5%) and ILM (22.5 to 45%).

Availability :
Institute of Plant Breeding, Library; University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 91732

Ipil-ipil seeds: Substitute for imported paper additive developed


Urbanes, PO (ed)
The Philippine Lumberman; 42 (1); p.37 (1996)

Abstract:
DOST in Laguna has developed a gum additive that can substitute for the more expensive imported additive used in papermaking. Buena Pamplona of the FPRDI produced a cheaper gum additive for papermaking using ipil-ipil. The additive performed as well as that produced from the commercial guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taubert gum).

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 91640

Contour tree farming


Yao, CE
Greenfields 23 (7): 40-41 (1995)

Abstract:
The article reveals pointers on planting forest trees in hilly areas, and on managing a tree farm.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 91664

Provenance trial of some fast-growing species under TCA conditions


Sancho, JL; Sotero, ER; Soriano, Jr HM
TCA Research Journal 5 (3): 108-112 (1983)

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine what provenance would respond favorably to site conditions at the Tarlac College of Agriculture in Camiling, Tarlac. Results of the study showed that provenance significantly affected the growth of the plants when transplanted under TCA conditions. It was observed that the seedlings from Pampanga exhibited the fastest growth rate than the other provenances. It was also found that there were no significant differences on the percentage survival of the plants from different provenances as well as in terms of species.

Availability :
Department of Research and Development; Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 91668

Effects of different levels of ipil-ipil utilized as organic fertilizer on the growth and yield of sweet pepper


Dela Cruz, NT; Belen, R
TCA Research Journal 5 (3): 118-123 (1983)

Abstract:
A study on the effects of different levels of ipil-ipil used as green manure on the growth and yield of sweet pepper was conducted in RCBD. Results of the study revealed that significant effects were noted on the growth and yield of sweet pepper applied with different levels of ipil-ipil. It was indicated that the highest level of ipil-ipil (4 tons/ha) significantly increased the height of sweet pepper. However, when it comes to the production of fruits, number, size and fruit yield per hectare, 2 tons/ha significantly produced the highest and best quality fruits. It also gave the highest return per peso cost.

Availability :
Department of Research and Development; Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 91777

Potential species for degraded uplands


Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños; Laguna

Highlights '96; p.25-26

Abstract:
Nasayao and Germano (DENR-ERDS Region 8) conducted field trials/planting of fast growing species in degraded lands in Ormoc and Matalom, Leyte. The species used were Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia leptocarpa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Pinus indicus and Swietenia macrophylla.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 91789

Field performance of ipil-ipil hybrids


Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development - Department of Science and Technology

PCARRD Annual Report '97; p.23

Abstract:
Cross hybrid between L. leucocephala and L. pallida showed highest yield promise. It yield 4 times the giant ipil-ipil and found more resistant to psyllids. [note]

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 91791

Hill space requirement of sweet pepper applied with ipil-ipil as green manure


Mangrobang, AS; Belen, R
TCA Research Journal 5 (3): 124-128 (1983)

Abstract:
A study on hill spacing on sweet pepper production applied with ipil-ipil was conducted to evaluate its growth and yield performance under TCA conditions. Results of the study showed that the different hill spacing influences the growth and yield performance of sweet pepper when applied with leaves of ipil-ipil as green manure. It was shown that 40 cm hill spacing produced the biggest size of fruits and yield per hectare. However, on the height of plants and number of fruits, 30 cm hill spacing produced the tallest plants and 60 cm hill spacing produced the most number of fruits per plant. Greater development of fruits was observed at 40 cm hill spacing because of enough food nutrients supplied to the plants. Moreover, at wider spacing (60cm), there was not enough plants to produce greater yield. Economically, 40cm hill spacing gave the highest return per peso cost.

Availability :
Department of Research and Development; Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 91792

Utilization of madre de cacao and ipil-ipil leaves as organic fertilizers for field corn production


Doloso, FG
The Philippine Journal of Plant Industry 60 (2): 1-22 (1995)

Abstract:
A two-year study was undertaken at the experimental area of the La Granja National Crop Research and Development Center, La Carlota City, Negros Occidental attempting to look for alternative and economical sources of fertilizer for corn. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The treatments consisted of air-dried leaves of madre de cacao and ipil-ipil as organic fertilizers combined with inorganic fertilizer in different quantities namely: TI-3 tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha, T2-4.5 tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha, T3-6 tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha, T4-3 tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha + 30-15-15 kg NPK/ha, T5-4.5 tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha + 30-15-15 kg NPK/ha, T6-6 tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha+ 30-15-15 kg NPK/ha, T7-3 tons madre de cacao leaves/ha, T8-4.5 tons madre de cacao leaves/ha, T9-6 tons madre de cacao leaves/ha, T10-3 tons madre de cacao leaves/ha + 30-15-15 kg NPK/ha, T11-4.5 tons madre de cacao leaves/ha + 30-15-15 kg NPK'ha, T12-6 tons madre de cacao leaves/ha + 30-15-15 kg NPK/ha, T13- recommended Rate (60-30-303 kg NPK/ha) and T14-Control (no fertilizer).

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 91994

Herbage yield of selected leguminous trees as hedgerows in an alley cropping agroforestry scheme


Soriano, Jr HM
TCA Research Journal 14 (1 & 2): 30-39 (1992)

Abstract:
A study on the herbage production of selected leguminous trees used as hedgerows in an alley cropping agroforestry scheme was conducted in 1989 and 1990 at the TCA Forest Reservation at Calao, Mayantoc, Tarlac. The experiment was laid out in RCBD in three replicates with Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena diversifolia, and Acacia villosa as the treatments. Two year data showed that G. sepium was the highest yielder of fresh herbage which compensated for its low percent dry matter. The legume herbages did not differ significantly in their nitrogen and phosphorus contents. However, G. sepium has the highest percent potassium content in its herbage. The equivalent commercial N fertilizer contributed by the hedgerows ranged from 6 to 9 bags of Ammonium sulfate/ha/year or 3 to 4 bags of urea/ha/year.

Availability :
Department of Research and Development; Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 92068

Lets plant trees for firewood


Catanaoan, CC
Manila Bulletin, December ?: ? (1997)

Abstract:
In degraded forest, people harvest the branches of trees for firewood. To conserve energy, we must replenish our supply of firewood and make use of other sources of energy such as cow manure.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library
Email: pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph




NO. 92093

Growth performance of aure, mangium, bagras, mahogany and alibangbang in selected LICP areas


Urbanes, PO (ed)
The Philippine Lumberman 42 (5): 12 (1995)

Abstract:
The different factors that affect tree growth was enumerated. No such relationship were determined for trees planted in NCR due to lack of enough samples for statistical analysis. Soil analysis of the selected LICP areas showed that pH in NCR is quite acidic. More trees and bigger areas have to be planted for more realistic results. Trees and more trees will make MM greener and more beautiful. Maybe, the low diameter and height values are due to somewhat hostile environment in NCR.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92659

The effects of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit seed suspension, levamisole, mebendazole and pyrantel on survival and acetylcholinesterase activity in vivo of Ascaris suum


Pocsidio, GN; Alcausin, MB
Asia Life Sciences 7 (2): 141-148 (1998)

Abstract:
The anthelminthic action of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (ipil-ipil) seed suspension was investigated in Ascaris sum acetylcholinesterase activity and compared to those by levamisole, pyrantel and mebendazole. Gainer's acetylthiocholine iodide histochemical test and Ellmann's acetylcholinesterase assay were performed on the anterior somatic fields of the worms after six hours of exposure to the drugs prepared in artificial perienteric fluid. The results suggest that L. leucocephala, pyrantel and levamisole are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Mebendazole has no effect on the enzyme.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 92910

The mechanical properties of giant ipil-ipil


Floresca, AR; Lauricio, FM; Versola, LD
NSDB/NSTA Technology Journal 3 (3): 56-59 (1978)

Abstract:
The results of standard mechanical tests conducted on green clear specimens taken from 2 trees of giant ipil-ipil [Laucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit], collected in Canlubang, Laguna are presented. Moisture content and specific gravity of the species tested are also determined.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92912

Determining volume of giant ipil-ipil at Canlubang Sugar Estate


Semana, JA; Leano, PA
NSDB/NSTA Technology Journal 2 (3): 46-52 (1977)

Abstract:
The annual growth increments of the stand of K28 giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit] were found to be 25.2 bone-dry tons/ha/yr. or 45.5 m3/ha/yr for the trunks alone and 31.6 bdt/ha/yr for both trunks and branches. This is the highest known growth rate of any plantation species in the Philippines. The stand had a project volume of 38.7 ha.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92916

Proximate chemical composition of giant ipil-ipil wood from different sources


Escolano, EU; Gonzales, EV; Semana, JA
Forpride digest (791): 18-22 (1978)

Abstract:
Seven samples of giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit] wood from different sources were studied for their proximate chemical compositions. Their compositions ranged from 69.8 to 73.9% holocellulose; 8.9-20.1% pentosans; 21.8-26.0% lignin; 1.4-3.0% alcohol-benzene solubles; 1.1-2.7% hot-water solubles; 13.0-16.4% caustic-soda solubles and 0.7-0.9% ash. These results showed that, based on their chemical composition, giant ipil-ipil is a desirable material for pulp and paper manufacture.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92985

Evaluation of indigenous and naturalized multipurpose trees as alternative to Leucaena leucocephala in hilly-land farming


Calub, BM
Philippine Technology Journal 18 (3): 37-56 (1993)

Abstract:
A study was conducted in Laguna, Philippines to evaluate herbage production, copping ability, tree growth and persistence of indigenous or naturalized MPTs as compared to that Leucaena Leucocephala which has been infested by psyllids (Heteropsylla cubana). Six multipurpose tree species (MPTS) (Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina orientalis, Moringa oleifera, Bauhinia monandra, Pithecellobium dulce and L. leucocephala) were established in hedge grows and subjected to initial cutting at three different ages of trees cutting frequencies. Despite the psyllid infestation on L. leucocephala results indicates that still can perform well although yields are less compared to those reported prior to the psyllid infestation. L. leucocephala need to be totally replaced in the farming system but mixed planting with indigenous or naturalized MPTs is highly recommended, to wit B. monandra and G. sepium. Age of trees at initial cutting affected subsequent annual leaf and stem dry matter yields but not survival rate. MPTs can be cut as early as six months after planting. Initial yields will be low but this compensated in subsequent cuttings. Cutting frequency had a highly significant effect on stem dry matter production. Cutting every 120 days favoured the production of more stems than when done every 60 or 90 days. G. sepium had highest survival rate after three years of regular pruning, followed consecutive by E. orientalis, L. leucocephala, P. dulce and B. manadra. Lowest survival rate was observe in M. oleifera.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 92991

Natural enemies of Heteropsylla cubana Crawford (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in the Philippines


Villacarlos, LT
Philippine Technology Journal 18 (3): 57-64 (1993)

Abstract:
A monthly survey on the natural enemies of heteropsylla cubana was conducted in Leyte from January 1986 to December 1988, and from September 1988 to January 1990 a quarterly survey was also undertaken in other parts of the Visayas and Mindanao to determine the incidence of some entomopathogenic fungi. The biology of potential predators was studied and mass production scheme was developed for there field release. Two kinds of natural enemies were collected: one group included entomophagus athropods that consisted at 17 species of spiders under 9 families with Liocranum sp. and Misumena sp., as the common ones, and 10 species of predatory insects under 6 families. Two of the most predominant were the mirid bugs, Campylomma Livida and Deraeocoris sp. In mid-1991 as encrytid nymphal parasitoid, Psyllaephagus yaseeni, was also noted. The other group consisted of entomopathogenic fungi that caused spizootics in moist areas where population of H. cubana was dense. These included the hymphomycetes: Fusarium sp., Hirsutella citroforms and Paecilomyces fariunosus, and four new species of entomophthorales of the following genera: Neoztgites, Entomophaga, erynia and Entomophthora, Neozygites sp. accounted for 56% of the total number of infected insects examined. Two potential predators were Deraicoris sp. and the exotic coccinellid, Curinus coerules. With psyllid as prey, the former completed its life cycle in 16 days while the latter in 29 days. C. coerules was successfully mass produced and got established in Bayay, Leyte, VISCA is presently the source of this predator in the Visayas. Some implications and recommendations based on the results of this research were discussed.

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 93315

Effects of ipil-ipil and ammonium sulfate as nitrogen sources of sweet potato


Urdaneta, LA; Javier, RR
Annals of Tropical Research 2(2): 122-128(1980)

Abstract:
Nitrogen appilications, either with the use of ammonium sulfate or ipil-ipil leaves, significantly improved the yield components of the three varieties of sweet potata,except in the number of non-marketable tubers. Among the varieties tested, BNAS-51 yielded the highest amount of marketable tibers with the average of 11.7 t/ha, followed by Bakabakahan and Bulacan with 8.03 and 6.6 t/ha, respectively. BNAS-51 and Bakabakahan produced more and heavier marketable tubers/plant, and longer and heavier fresh weight of vines/plants. BNAS-51 had fewer but heavier non-marketable tubers than the the other two varieties. Plants which receaved nitrogen (N) from ipil-ipil leaves produced more and heavier fresh vines/plant than those without N. A lower percentage of dry matter content was observed in N-fertilized plants. In terms of tuber yield,plants which recieved 60kg/ha,eigther from ipil-ipil leaves or ammonium sulfate,yield more with 3.0 and 6.0 t/ha, respectively, than those plants which did not recieve N. Despite the equal rates of Napplication,plants which were applied with inorganic N fertilizer (ammonium sulfate) produced significantly higher yields than which received organic fertilizer(ipil-ipil leaves).

Availability :
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Main Library




NO. 94813

The effect of a stone mulch on the growth rate of Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminaceae) (L.) Benth. in Cebu City, Philippines


Granert, WG
The Philippine Scientist 12: 81-86(1975)

Abstract:
The research studied the effect of placing stone mulch around plants to discover if this will significantly improve their growth rate. The results of the eight-month observation, though somewhat inconclusive show that there is a notable tendency for the growth under mulched conditions to move towards a significant increased over non-mulched trees especially during the dry season when the need for water becomes critical. Several other observations made during the study may also lend credence to the benefits derived from the use of stone mulch on hillsides. First during the period of heavy rainfall, soil was constantly washed away from the upper roots of unmulched trees while the empty spaces between the rocks of mulched trees showed general yellowing of leaves much sooner than the mulched trees. Third, there was preponderance of earthworm castings mixed with the rock mulches, an indication of the presence of this very beneficial organism for soil enrichment.

Availability :
Rizal Library; Ateneo de Manila University; Katipunan road, Quezon City; Philippines




NO. 94816

Effects of a leguminous nurse tree, giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (L.) Benth.), on the growth rate of teak (Tectona grandis L.) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in Talamban, Cebu City


Granert, WG; Cadampog, Z
The Philippine Scientist 17: 137-145(1980)

Abstract:
Teak and mahogany may both be grown under ipil-ipil, with mahogany doing better of the two. Care must be taken so the teak will not be kept in shadow by too dense a planting of ipil-ipil. Care must also be taken to ensure a healthy growth of the ipil-ipil seedlings. In some cases fertilizer may be required to obtain the type of growth expected.

Availability :
Rizal Library; Ateneo de Manila University; Katipunan road, Quezon City; Philippines




NO. 94920

Comparative wood quality of four varieties of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit


Valmonte, AD; Lantican, CB
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños, Philippines;19-23 November, 1990;Taylor,DA. And Mc Dicken KG.(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: 1991 pp. 159-166

Abstract:
Variability of four wood quality indicators (specific gravity, extractive content, fiber length, and the Runkel ratio) for four varieties of Leucaena leucocephala was studied. All features examined showed statistically significant variations among varieties, among trees within varieties, and with respect to distance fron the pith. The implications of these variations for tree improvement are discussed.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 94917

Seed biology of selected multipurpose tree species


Gamboa-Lapitan, P
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños, Philippines;19-23 November, 1990;Taylor,DA. And Mc Dicken KG.(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: 1991 pp. 119-123

Abstract:
This paper discusses the seed biology of eight multipurpose tree species commonly grown in the Philippines: Paraserianthes falcataria, Albizia (formerly Samanea) saman, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia auriculiformis, Anthocephalus chinensis, Pinus kesiya, Casuarina equsetifolia, and Koordersiodendron pinnatum. Appropriate timing of seed collection and germination and storage requirements are emphasized. In some cases, an assessment of exisiting seed technology is presented.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 94914

Farmers' practices for establishment, maintenance and utilization of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium in Leyte, Philippines


Dargantes, BB
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños, Philippines;19-23 November, 1990;Taylor,DA. And Mc Dicken KG.(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: 1991 pp. 65-73

Abstract:
This study describes the practices of farm households in the establishment, maintenance, and utilization of two varieties of Leucena leucocephala and one variety of Gliricidia sepium. The data come from a sample survey of 190 farm households in 19 villages in Leyte, Philippines. Of the sample respondents, 76 households had one or both species growing on farmland; 38 had them in home gardens. Native L. leucocephala growing on farms was usually not planted, although some farmers established it by direct seeding in the same way as the giant variety. G.sepium was established through direct planting of cuttings. Land preparation for planting usually consisted of clearing the land by manual weeding. In other cases, farmers only dugs holes into which they sowed seeds or planted cuttings. Farmers' maintenance activities included watering, weeding, brushing, pruning, and thinning. Often these were done primarily to benefit nearby agricutural crops. The trunk and branches of both tree species were usually gathered to provide fuelwood and timber; leaves were used as feed and smudging material to repel insects.Branches of G.sepium were used as planting materials.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 94915

Negative allelopathic effects of mimosive in Leucaena leucocephala


Rizvi, V; Kumar, R; Rizvi, SJH
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños, Philippines;19-23 November, 1990;Taylor,DA. And Mc Dicken KG.(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: 1991 pp. 59-64

Abstract:
Multipurpose trees provide food, fodder, and fuel, and sometimes improve the soil, but some species release allelochemicals. most of which are secondary metabolites released into the soil and environment. Continous release of allelochemicals causes them to accumulate in the soil and affect crop and/or fodder plants in the vicinity. Some allelochemicals are extremely toxic to crops, fodder plants, and their consumers. Production of allelochemicals by multipurpose trees and their possible effects on plants and grazing animals should be seriously examined before they are recommended into agroforestry programs. Mimosine, an allelochemical present in leaves and seeds of Leucaena leucocephala, has strong inhibitory effects on many crop plants. It strongly affects protein/carbohydrate metabolisms. In vivo trials confirmed that it reduces yields of many crops and affects the nutritive value of the produce. Allelopathic compatibility of multipurpose trees with nearby plants should be examined at the start of planting programs, and any toxic allelochemical(s) present should be considered from the perspective of animal nutrition.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 94931

Leucaena leucocephala as a fallow improvement crop in shifting cultivation on the island of Mindoro, Philippines


MacDicken, KG
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños, Philippines;19-23 November, 1990;Taylor,DA. And Mc Dicken KG.(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: 1991 pp. 34-40

Abstract:
In 1997, a fallow improvement program ws initiated in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines using Leucaena leucocephala to shorten the fallow period in local shifting cultivation practices. About 80% of the farmers in this area have planted leucaena, many reporting shortened fallow periods of two to four years with no estimated reduction in crop yields. This paper reports on the progress of a long-term study of soil properties under leucaena and natural bush fallows which have been monitored for two years. Soil organic matter in the 0-10 cm soil horizon was lower in Year 2 of monitoring than in Year 1, with significant differences detected at the p=0.05 level between natural and leucaena fallows. Soil in P in the 0-10 cm horizon remained constant, but showed significant differences in the rate of change under the leucaena and bush fallows.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93847

Growth performance of two Leucaena species exposed to natural infestation by the Leucaena psyllid Heteropsylla cubana Crawford (Homoptera:Psyllidae)


Lapis, EB; Borden, GH
Sylvatrop 2(1): 61-72(1992)

Abstract:
The impact of the ipil-ipil psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana crawford, on the growth of Leucaena luecocephala (Lamarck) de wit and Leucaena collinsi Britton and Rose in the Philippines was evaluated using 7 month-old seedlings grown outdoors in Terra cotta pots. Fourteen week after natural infestation, there was a significantly lower height and smaller diameter increment in infested L. leucocephala than in uninfested seedlings sprayed with monocrotophos. There was a significant reduction in height growth of infested L. collinsi (much less than in L. luecocephala), but no significant decrease in diameter growth. Infestation caused an eight-fold decrease in biomass yield for L. leucocephala compared with that for L. collinsi. Results of this study verify reports that L. collinsi is resistant to H. cubana but refute anecdotal observations that is immune to psyllid infestation. L. collinsi could be one source of resistance against H. cubana for incorporation into L. leucocephala.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93850

Soil-site index method in developing growth and yield prediction models for Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de wit.


Uriarte, MT
Sylvatrop 2(2): 49-74(1992)

Abstract:
Using one hundred and twenty one (121) temporary sample plots, it was found that the dominant height of Leucaena leucocephala is strongly correlated with elevation, depth of A-horizon, pH phosphorous rainfall, magnesium and nitrogen. However, the "best" soil-site index equation showed that total height is greatly influenced by pH and age. The yield prediction functions which were developed showed that age, soil site index and spacing are variables significantly affecting yield.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93855

Tree site index in developing growth and yield prediction models for Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit


Uriarte, MT
Sylvatrop 3(1): 73-95(1993)

Abstract:
A comparative study to determine the relationship between age and dominant height was conducted for L. leucocephala. The site index equation generated was used to determine the yield models using ordinary least squares (OLS) and system of equations. Using the Chapman-Richards model, the site index was found to be reflective of the site properties. Selected yield prediction models showed that age, site index and spacing significantly affect yield. Single equation models accounted for 66% of the variation in yield.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93876

Evaluation of Leucaena leucocephala de wit., Tectona grandis Linn., Pterocarpus indicus Wild., and Eucalyptus deglupta Blume for streambank stabilization in the Agusan River Basin


Baconguis, SR
Sylvatrop 1(1): 79-101(1991)

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala de wit. (Ipil-ipil), Tectona grandis Linn. (Teak), Pterocarpus indicus Wild. (narra) and Eucalyptus deglupta Blume (Bagras) were evaluated as to their adaptability and erosion control potential in the streambanks of agusan river basin. Plant survival 30 months after planting were 98.5%, 97.6%,89.3% and 78.6% for T. grandis, L. leucocephala, P. indicus and E. deglupta respectively. Soil erosion rate under the different plant species were 46.0, 49.0, 203.0 and 208.0 m3/ha/yr for T. grandis, L. leucocephala, E. deglupta, and P. indicus, respectively. The soil erosion rate for the control treatment is 271.0 m3/ha/yr. The lower erosion rate in plots covered by T. grandis and L. leucocephala was attributable to the species more developed canopy, thus providing more ground cover than the other two species in protecting the soil from the erosive impact of raindrops.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93893

Utilization of giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] seed flour as plywood glue extender


Chan, FD; Dionglay, MSP
Forest Products Research and Development Institute(FPRDI) Journal 22(2): 1-14(1996)

Abstract:
The effects of pressing time and levels of wheat (Triticum sp.) flour and giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] seed flour extenders on the bond quality of yemane (Gmelina arborea R. Br.) plywood using urea-formaldehyde resin adhesive was investigated. The water-taking capacity of the giant ipil-ipil seed flour and the spreadability of the glue mix were not affected by the high amounts of crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber in the flour. The water-taking capacity of giant ipil-ipil seed flour was comparable with wheat flour. Plywood samples bonded with giant ipil-ipil seed flour-extended glue mixes had significantly higher wet shear strength and wood failure compared with those bonded with wheat flour-extended glue mixes. These indicate that the former are more water-resistant than the latter. At 15.9% and 31.8% glue extensions, shorter pressing times could be used on giant ipil-ipil-extended glue mixes (2.4 and 2.1 min, respectively) compared with wheat flour-extended glue mixes (2.5 and 2.9 min, respectively). The shear strength retained in plywood samples bonded with giant ipil-ipil seed flour-extended glue mixes was significantly higher than those bonded with wheat flour-extended glue mixes (69.8% vs. 63.4%).

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 93894

Control of formaldehyde emission in plywood using giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] seed flour as extender


Chan, FD
Forest Products Research and Development Institute(FPRDI) Journal 22(2): 15-19(1996)

Abstract:
Giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] seed flour controlled formaldehyde emission in plywood samples better than wheat (Triticum sp.) flour. Both pressing time and level of extension significantly affected the formaldehyde release in plywood samples. An increase in pressing time and level of extension decreased the amount of formaldehyde released. The lowest formaldehyde emission of 2.28 ug/ml was obtained at the highest level of giant ipil-ipil seed flour extension(79.4%) and at 4 min pressing time. The superior performance of glue mixes extended with giant ipil-ipil seed flour was attributed to the latter's higher protein content in comparison with wheat flour, making it more reactive with formaldehyde and thus reducing formaldehyde release.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 94300

Regional performance trials for forage and pasture crops


Tirol, DF
DA Research Highlights : 63(1995-1996)

Abstract:
The performance of 4 accessions of ipil-ipil and 5 accessions of Desmanthus were evaluated using RCBD with 3 replications. On the other hand an unreplicated observational nursery trial on Siratro, Stylo 184 & Glitoria ternatea was conducted at WESVIARC, Iloilo from October 1993 to December 1995. The standard methodology as outlined in PCARRD's "Manual for Performance Trials of Forage and Pasture Crops" was followed. Nutrient analysis of whole samples indicated very high crude protein with 24.31% for Ipil-ipil and 15.37% for Desmanthus. Desmanthus Acc. 89197 outyielded the rest (fresh and dry matter). Wet season yields were greater than the Dry season with the yield generally decreasing on the second year. Leucaena diversifolia (K-875) gave the highest fresh and dry matter herbage yield except the second year wherein L. leucocephala (K-527) yielded more dry matter. Plant height of both ipil-ipil & Desmanthus seemed to have an effect on the yield with the taller plant showing a tendency to produce higher yields. Based on initial observations, Siratro and Stylo 184 were promising while Glitoria did not perform well due to severe infestation by leaf miners.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 94476

Comparison of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seed suspension, papaya(Carica papaya) seed suspension and pyrantel pamoate suspension as antihelminthics among the MCU grade school students with ascariasis


Gironella, CG
Inventory of Health Researches: 131(1994-1996)

Abstract:
In the Philippines, ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic infections affecting adults and children. It is most prevalent in the ages 5- 9 years old groups of children. Today our government thru the Department of Health is encouraging the use of the naturally available herbal plants to meet the primary health care needs of our people, especially in the rural areas. This study intends to prove the ipil-ipil seeds and papaya seeds possess antihelminthic property which is comparable to pyrantel pamoate when it comes to cure rate. It also hopes to find an alternative antihelminthic preparations with better acceptability and the least side effects.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94477

A double-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing the anti-helminthic effect of ipil-ipil seed powder to commercially prepared mobedazole in Trichuris trichium infection


Sarmiento, Av; Santos, R; Sarmiento, M; Serrano, A
Inventory of Health Researches: 133(1994-1996)

Abstract:
A double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing the antihelminthic effect of ipil-ipil seed powder and mebendazole against Trichuris trichiura was conducted in Freedom Island, Coastal Road, Paranaque, Metro Manila. A total of 139 children ranging from 7-12 years of age found positive for T.trihiura ova by kato-Katz Modified Thick Smear Technique were randomized to receive either ipil-ipil seed powder capsules at dose or mebendazole capsules at dose. The difference in the number of T. trichiura ova before and after treatment was used as the parameter in determining the anthelmintic effects of ipil-ipil seed powder and mebendazole on T. trichiura. Results showed ipil- ipil seed powder was able to markedly decrease the ova count by 57.24% but to a lesser extent compared to mebendazole, which decreased the ova count by 89.015%. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the efficacy of mebendazole and ipil-ipil seed powder. Thus, the authors concluded that ipil-ipil seed powder can serve as an economical, but less efficacious, alternative to commercially prepared mebendazole against T. trichiura.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94513

Comparative study on the effects of ipil-ipil, acacia and cassava leaf meals added to broiler ration


Quiday, JB; Abaya, AQ
ASIST Research Journal 35-43(1987)

Abstract:
This study was conducted primarily to compare the effects of the different leaf meals added to commercial feeds on the performance of broilers. It was conducted at the Abra State Institute of Sciences and Technology, Lagangilang Abra from May 28 to July 4,1985. Eighty-four birds were used on the study which were divided into four treatments. Birds in Treatment A were fed with commercial feeds plus 5% ipil-ipil leaf meals. Those in Treatment B and C were given acacia and cassava leaf meals as feed supplements. Birds in treatment D which served as the control were fed with pure commercial feeds. There was no mortality in any of the treatments. Based on the results of the study, those given ipil-ipil as fed supplement were the heaviest among the other treatments. It was followed by birds given with acacia and the control group in the same order. Birds with cassava leaf meal as feed supplement were the lightest at the end of the study.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 94589

Physico-chemical and pharmacological studies on ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) De Wit) affecting the reproductive functions of mammals


Sotaridona, PS; Deanon, ALS; Memita, EN; Lopez, PL
NRCP Research Bulletin 33(1): 51-69(1978)

Abstract:
A series of two experiment using sixty-six (66) mice (Mus musculus) were conducted to determine the effects of ipil-ipil leaf meal on growth and reproductive functions of laboratory animals. The first experiment, arranged in a 2x3 factorial scheme used thirty (30) sexually mature female mice while the second experiment arranged in a 3x2x2 factorial scheme used thirty-six (36) growing mice. In experiment 1, six (6) treatment groups consisted of three levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal (e.g. 0,10 and 20%) and two (2) levels of ferrous sulfate (e.g. 0 and 0.3%) were used. Likewise, experiment 2 used the same levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal and ferrous sulfate; however, consisted of 12 treatment groups with male and female mice. The feeding period lasted for 14 and 6 weeks, respectively, for experiments 1 and 2.

Availability :
Ateneo de Manila University




NO. 93906

Starch-gum blends as paper additives


Pamplona, BS; Palanginan, II; Dionglay, MSP
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) Journal 23(2): 77-88(1997)

Abstract:
Native cassava (Manihot exculenta Crantz) starch to ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] gum mass ratios of 7:3 (mix 1), 8:2 (mix 2) and 9:1 (mix 3) were prepared into papermaking chemicals and their performances as beater additives tested on commercial pulp. The blends had the following properties: physical-free-flowing colloidal suspension with no surface film or gel formation upon cooking and cooling, fluidity of 726 sec. at 25 C (mix 1), light orange, pH 6; chemical composition (mix 1) - 0.76% ash, 9.13% crude protein, 3.45% crude fiber and 78.88% nitrogen-free extract. The IR spectra showed strong absorption bands characteristics of both starch and galactomannan. Separate applications of all three mixes at 1% dosage exhibited equivalent strength properties in handsheets made from mill sack paper furnish, consisting of carton waste and unbleached kraft pulp at pH 4.8. Significantly higher burst, tensile and tear properties were noted at pH 7 and 8 for mixes 1 and 2. The close association of the starch-gum-cellulose molecules through hydrogen-bonding could have effected an increase in the strength properties of the handsheets at neutral and near alkaline pH.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 93964

Antimutagens from Leucaena leucocephala (ipil-ipil)


Guevarra, AP; Nacar, J; Baluyo, R; Domingo, A
Inventory of Health Researches : 119(1993-1994)

Abstract:
Dried leaves of Leucaena leucocephala, locally known as ipil-ipil, were extracted with distilled ethanol. The extract was concentrated under reduced pressure and the concentrated under reduced pressure and the concentrated extract partitioned between carbon tetrachloride and aqueous methanol. The concentrated CC14 extract which exhibited significant antimutagenic activity was fractionated by repeated and sequential rapid column chromatography using vacuum elution until TLC-pure isolates were obtained. A bioactivity-directed fractionation scheme was employed. Five to six inches silica gel (KIESEGEL 60G, Merrck 7731) of varying diameters were used as column. Used as eluting solvents were hexane-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity. The progress of fractionation/purification was monitored by TLC. The antimutagenic activities of the column fractions were minotred by the micronucleus test.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94007

Comparison of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seed suspension , papaya (Carica papaya), seed suspension and pyrantel pamoate suspension as anti-helminthics among the MCU grade school students with ascariasis


Gironella, CG
Inventory of Health Researches : 89(1997-1998)

Abstract:
In the Philippines, ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic infections affecting adults and children. It is most prevalent in the ages 5-9 years old groups of children. Today our government thru the Department of Health is encouraging the use of naturally available herbal plants to meet the primary health care needs of our people, especially in the rural areas. This study intends to prove the ipil-ipil seeds and papaya seeds possess antihelminthic property which is comparable to Pyratel pamoate when it comes to cure rate. It also hopes to find an alternative anti-helminthic preparations with better acceptability and the least side effects.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94089

Effect of hedgerows on soil fertility and crop yield


Tura, CM
Ecosystems Research Digest;ERDS-DENR R7 5(1): 16-30(1995)

Abstract:
The study evaluated the effect of hedgerows on soil fertility and crop yield. Three hedgerow species were utilized namely,calliandra kakawate and ipil-ipil. Herbage of these species were applied to the alley crops as organic fertilizer. The alley crops included corn,potato,peanuts and bush sitao. Results showed that the three hedgerows are potential sources of nutrients to the alley crop. Herbage application improve the soil properties as well as increase productivity. However, the effectiveness of herbage as organic fertilizer takes place for a longer period before the physical condition of the soil is significantly improved. In terms of crop productivity, the hedgerows species tested significantly increase the yield of alley crops compared to the control.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94106

Evaluation of seven Leucaena species for psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana Crawford) resistance


Mitchell, JL
Ecosystems Research Digest;ERDS-DENR R7 2(1): 19-25(1992)

Abstract:
The study was conducted to evaluate seven Leucaena species for psyllid resistance by correlating psyllid egg, nymphs and adult population to Leucaena shoot damage and evaluating the growth performance of the tested species. Out of seven three Leucaena species namely Leucaena pallida K376, L.diversifolia K784, and L.diversifolia K156 showed general resistance to psyllid infestation. These species also posessed high growth rate and high yield in terms of wood and fodder. It is recommended that these species be trial in other areas of the region with consideration to elevation and soil requirements before planting them into large scale.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 94286

Screening major crops for allelophatic effect


Dacanya, EV; Fuji, Y; Arai, S; Yasuda, T
DA Research Highlights : 18 (1995-1996)

Abstract:
Local plant species were screened for Allelophatic Effect using Bioassay Methodologies called Leachate or "Sandwich Method" and the Plant Box Method. Results indicated some probable candidates for allelophaty using agar medium and intact plants as donor plants. Direct allelophatic effects were noted from roots, leaves and other parts of the plant materials. Gliricidia sepium known locally as kakawate and Tamarindus indica or Sampalok are among the promising crops. Other legumes like Seralbizia acle, and Adewanthera intermedia also indicated allelopathy in order crops along with Calopogonium mucunoides, Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria spectabilis, Leucaena leucocephala and Mucuna pruriens. Allelopathic activity of Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum spontaneum were also tested on different crops.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 93663

Natural microbial control of leucaena psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana crawford)(homoptera:psyllidae) in the Philippines


Villacarlos, LT; Robin, RR
Proceedings;International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños Philippines;19-23 November;Taylor,DA And Mc Dicken KG(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development;1991;pp.236-241

Abstract:
Monthly collections of psyllids (Heteropsylla cubana Crawford) infesting Leucaena leucocephala were taken from May 1986 to June 1978 in Leyte, Philippines . Form September 1988 to January 1990, a quarterly survey was undertaken to determine the incidence of some entomopathogenic fungi among psyllid populations on neighboring islands. Five entomopathogens were collected from the various regions; two entomophthoralean fungi (Entomophthora sp. and one unidentified species in the family Neozygitaceae) and three hyphomycetes (Hirsutella citriformis, Paecilomyces farinsus and Fusarium sp.). These regularly caused epizootics in the psyllid populations at ViSCA in Leyte, Epizootics, due to the entomophthoralean fungi, were also commonly observed in Bukidnon, Davao, and Iligan, where conditions are normaly wet. The entmopathogens were observed only occassionally in Villada, Leyte, Cebu and Negros Occidental, where it is relatively dry. The existence of these entomopathogens was probably one many factors taht enabled leucaena trees in those areas to withstand heavy psyllid infestation.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93664

Pathological problems of multipurpose trees in India


Dargan, JS
Proceedings;International Worjshop on Research on Multi-porpose Tree Species In Asia;Los Baños,Philippines;19-23 November,1990;Taylor,DA And Mc Dicken KG(eds);Winrock International Institute for Agriculture Develpment;1991;pp.225-235

Abstract:
With the increase in population and changing socioeconomic condition in India, fuel fodder, and timber are becoming scarce and expensive. To meet the needs of rural people, about forty multipurpose tree species have been recommended for various regions in India, including Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. In thier natural enviroments, these trees suffer from pathological problems caused by biotic agents such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. In this paper, common diseases caused by fungi in nurseries and on standing trees are discussed. Damping off disease is quite common in conifers, Eucalyptus and Dalbergia nurseries. Root-rot is prevalent in several tress species often caused by members of Basidiomycotina. Decay is the most important cause of loss to standing crop;fungi associated with heart rot generally belong to Hymenomycetes and some higher ascomcetes. Canker diseases appear on many trees used in agroforrestry and social forestry. Powdery mildews and rust are also reported on several multipurpose tree species. Management practices adopted in India for controlling these diseases are discuaaed.

Availability :
Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center Library, University of the Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 93712

Species and provenance trial of selected fuelwood species


Tumaliuan, BT
Sylvatrop 10(1): 35-48(1985)

Abstract:
Species and provenance trial of selected fuelwood species was conducted in Cabagan Forest Research Station, Cabagan, Isabela in July 1981, to determine adaptability of these species in this area. The results showed that ipil-ipil [Leucaena-leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] and akleng-parang [Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth] had the highest field survival (80%), followed by kakawate [Glericidia sepium (Jacq.) Steied] 65% and agoh [Casuarina equisetifolia Forst.] 53%. Despite its relatively low survival, agoho (53%) out-performeed the other species in height and diameter growth. In the provenance level, agoho Mindoro and Laguna had shown exceptional survival, height and diameter growth over agoho Quezon. For kakauate, Nueva Viscaya and outgrew the other provenances.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93717

Coating ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit]


Dalmacio, MV
Sylvaptrop 1: 148-149(1976)

Abstract:
Coating seeds of ipil-ipil with 7.5 percent active ingredient Arasan-75 WP(ettramethylth iurandisulfide, 75; inert, 25 percent) and boung to the seed coat with Dou Latex 512 R, significantly increased seed germination. This concentration has been reported (Dalmacio, 1974) to be a most effictive rodent repellent. A number of untreated seeds were attacked by fungus while none was observed in the treated ones.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93718

Height growth and survival of giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] seedlings potted in different soil media


Cadiz, RT
Sylvatrop 1: 145-147(1976)

Abstract:
Best results were obtained on the mixture of 1:1 topsoil and sand potting medium (96 percent survival and 15:10 cm height growth), followed by pure topsoil (88 survival and 13.93 height growth), 2:1 mixture of topsoil 87 percent survival and 15.29 cm height growth). However, no significantly differences were observed.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93729

Biomass prediction equations for giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit)


Tandug, LM
Sylvatrop 11(1&2): 1-22(1986)

Abstract:
Aboveground biomas of 111 giant ipil-ipil trees, with ages, 2 to 10 years, from six provinces of the Philippines were determined to develop equations for estimating fresh and overdry weight of the whole tree and its components. Average, ovendry weight of the total tree biomass ranged from 2.97 to 517.33 kg. The average tree contained 71.38% of the total dry weight in the merchantable hole,3.45% in the foliage and 25.17% in the topwood, small and large branches and twigs. Out of the seventeen regression models tested and evaluated for biomass best estimates. Prediction equations based on this models and two others were derived in estimating fresh and ovendry weight of the whole tree and its components: bole,topwood and large branches,stems and leaves.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 93741

Chemical composition, digestibility and intake of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Guazuma ulmifolia


Vargas, B; Hugo, E; Pablo, G; Elvira, S
Proceedings;Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Walp.: Management and Improvement;Turrialba,Costa Rica;21-27 June, 1987;Withington,D;Glover,N;Brewbaker,JL(eds.);Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Special Publication (87-01);Waiwanalo,USA;pp.217-222

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala, Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) and Caulote (Guazuma ulmifolia) are forage species which grow naturally in Guatemala's humid areas. Little is known about their nutritive value as an animal feed. The following study was undertaken with the objective to determine the chemical composition, digestibility and palatability of these three forage species. Dairy cows were fed chopped green foliage taken from three month old resprouts. Samples were taken for analysis. Significant differences were obtained between species with regards to intake, dry matter and crude protein. Madre Cacao has the highest values, 3.949, 0.868 and 0.209 kg/100 kg live weight, respectively. In vitro digestibility (dry weight) was superior for Madre Cacao (58.4%), followed by Leucaena (47.8%) and Caulote (45.0%). Crude protein was similar for Madre Cacao and Leucaena (25.8 and 25.0%, respectively) and much lower in Caulote (14.7%). Caulote has a high proportion of nitrogen in its cell walls (61.7%) and in lignin (25.2%). The crude fiber fraction was not significantly different between species. It is concluded that Madre Cacao and Leucaena are an excellent source of forage and protein for the production of milk from dairy cows.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 93757

Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp. in the Southern Ivory Coast: production, composition and decomposition of the leaf biomass


Budelman, A
Proceedings;Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)Walp.: Management and Improvement;Turrialba,Costa Rica;21-27 June, 1987;Withington D;Glover,N;Brewbaker,JL(eds.);Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Special Publication(87-01);Waiwanalo,USA;pp.74-81

Abstract:
Data are provided on the dry matter production, nutrient content and decomposition rate of Gliricidia sepium leaves used as a mulch. The production is generally lower than that of Leucaena leucocephala. Analysis shows that Gliricidia sepium does not meet its ecological optimum in the southern Ivory Coast. The nutrient contents of gliricidia leaves more or less follow the pattern found in leucaena leucocephala leaves. The dry matter content is about 5% lower compared to leucaena. Gliricidia leaves decompose rapidly. Half of the dry weight leaf material is lost after just three weeks. Phosporus and nitrogen are released within a similar period of time. The loss rate of potassium is about two times as fast as the rate of carbon, nitrogen and phosporus.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 94195

Survival and growth of six fuelwood species in five grassland soils at Ilocos Norte


Calacal, LP
Ecosystems Research Digest(Region I) 1(3): 1-30(1993)

Abstract:
Correlation analysis were run to determine the relationship of rainfall soil moisture and soil temperature with species growth and survival of fuelwood species. Results revealed that soil type significantly affected soil moisture content on the other hand a negative correlation exist between soil temperature and soil moisture, diameter growth of seedlings were highly significant for all specie while interaction between soil type and species showed no significant differences. Generally, soil moisture for all soil tested was inversely correlated with that of species diameter. Heights and diameter growth were positively correlated with soil temperature within 15cm and 30 cm depths. The positive correlation between variables imply that a decrease in soil moisture which mean an increase in soil temperature as well as increase in growth. Furthermore, survival in all species, except Pithecellobium dulce, was 100%.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 94219

The effectiveness of giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. de Wit.) leaves as germination media for agoho (Casuarina equisetifolia Forst) and bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume.Merr.)


Malab, SC; Sison, RV
Ecosystems Research Digest(Region I) 1(3): 31-35(1993)

Abstract:
The selection of appropriate potting media for germinating seeds and growing seedlings has always been an important factor in the culture of plants in the nursery. Often, the poor growth and development of the seedlings in the nursery have been attributed to poor soil media. Most nurserymen encounter the problem of soil crust formation on the surface of pots or seed boxes. Soils high in minerals often crust quickly after being watered.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 95140

The effect of feeding ipil-ipil leaves on goat production


Abilay, TA; Arinto; Alferez, AC
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 17th Annual Convention; Philippine International Convention Center, Manila; 21-22 November 1980; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1980; Alcantara PF, Arga¤osa VG; Oliveros BA, Zamora RG (eds) p.28

Abstract:
A twelve month experiment, using a randomized complete block (RCB) scheme was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of fresh ipil-ipil leaves on the reproductive performance of native does. Thiry-five regularly yclcing goats were randomly assigned to five treatment groups, with seven does per treatment.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95143

Growth and reproduction in male rabbits fed fresh ipil-ipil leaves


Abilay, TA; Rabe, ET; Obsioma, AR
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 17th Annual Convention; Philippine International Convention Center, Manila; 21-22 November 1980; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1980; Alcantara PF, Arga¤osa VG; Oliveros BA, Zamora RG (eds) p.8-9

Abstract:
Twenty sexually mature male rabiits (Orycolagus cuniculus) were distributed in a completely randomized design to determine the effect of ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala] (Lam. de Wit)] on the growth and reproductive functions of mature male rabbits. The results showed that male rabiits fed high level (e.g. 29, 43 and 57% DM) of ipil-ipil leaves had significantly reduced (P<0.05) body weight gains, feed conversion efficiency, testicular measurements, hematocrit and hemoglobon values, lymphocyte counts and weights of spleen and testes;induced a significant decrease in the conception rates and litter size at birth in test-female rabbits; and elicited a significant increase (P<0.01) in the WBC counts and the number of breeding attempts as compared with the control. However, no significant effects were observed on the RBC, neutrophil anad monocyte counts, and hepatorenal and heart weights of rabbits in all dietary treatments. On the other hand, rabbits fed 14% DM ipil-ipil leaves had no deletorius effects on growth and reproduction based on the aforementioned parameters.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95176

Potential of exotic and indigenous multipurpose tree species for agriculture and forestry in Papua New Guinea


Howcroft, NHS; Saulei, S
Proceedings; International Workshop on Research on Multi-purpose Tree Species In Asia; Los Baños, Philippines; 19-23 November, 1990; Taylor, DA and Mc Dicken , KG.(eds); Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development; 1991; pp. 102-107

Abstract:
Exotic and indigenous multipurpose tree species have potential for sustaining agriculture and forestry in Papua New Guinea. At present, however, knowledge of indigenous species for these uses is very limited. Research needs for native species and other requirements for developing potentials of MPTS are discussed in this paper.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95183

The effect of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala Lam de Wit) leaves on reproductive performance of beef cows and heifers


Tuazon, AM; Perez, CB, Jr.
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 16th Annual Convention; Abstracts of Papers; Philippine Village Hotel, Manila; 9-10 November 1979; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1979; pp. 37

Abstract:
Twenty beef cows and heifers of Zebu breed were randomly allotted equally to two treatments in a one-year feeding period. The two treatment were: I-Ad lib sugarcane tops (fresh and/or silage) plus 39.5% copra meal plus 10% molasses plus 0.5% urea plus 0.5% meat and bone meal plus 0.5% salt; II-Ad lib sugarcane tops (fresh and /or silage) plus 40.0% ipil-ipil leaves (dried) plus 10% molasses plus 0.5% meat and bone meal plus 0.5% salt. The study aimed to determined the effect of ipil-ipil leaves on the reproductive performance of breeding cows and heifers raised in semi-confinement with sugarcane tops comprising the bulk of the ration. The conception rate in each treatment was 100 percent although 10 percent in both treatments showed repeat breeding. Half of the calves in Treatments II had enlarged thyroid glands while there was none in Treatment I.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95187

A preliminary study on the effects of feeding different levels of fresh ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaves on feed consumption and feed conversion in goats


Cruz, ZG; Adonay, FF
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 15th Annual Convention; Philippine International Convention Center, Manila; 24-25 November 1978; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1978; pp. 33

Abstract:
A ten-week feeding experiment was conducted to observe twenty individually fed goats as to the feed intake, weight gains and feed conversion under ipil-ipil (Leucaena latisiqua) feeding trial. Other parameters noted were body temperature, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts and the behaviour of the experimental goats. The feed is composed of fresh ipil-ipil leaves and para grass alloted to five treatments with the following proportions (DM basis);I, 100% para grass;II, 75% para grass; 25% ipil-ipil;III, 50% para grass;50% ipil-ipil;IV, 25% para grass;75% ipil-ipil;V,100% ipil-ipil.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95188

The effects of feeding native and improved ipil-ipil leaf and seed meals on the reproductive function of rats


Abilay, TA; Lopez, PL; Sotaridona, PS; Puig; JP
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 14th Annual Convention; Philippine International Convention Center, Manila; 11-12 November 1977; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1977; pp. n.p.

Abstract:
Two experiments using eighty four (84) rats (Mus norvigicus albinus) were conducted to evaluate the effect of native and improved ipil-ipil leaf and seed meals on the reproductive functions of laboratory animals. The first experiment arranged in a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme used sixty (60) growing rats while the second experiment with a CRD scheme used twenty four (24) sexually mature male rats. In experiment I, twelve (12) treatment groups consisted of two (2) varieties of ipil-ipil leaf meal (e.g. native and improved) and three (3) levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal (e.g. 0, 10, 20%) with male and female rats were tested. On the other hand, experiment 2 consisted of four (4) treatment groups using four (4) levels of ipil-ipil seed meal (e.g. 0,10,20,30%). The feeding period lasted for ten (10) weeks and six (6) weeks, respectively for experiments 1 and 2.

Availability :
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College




NO. 95189

The slaughter and carcass characteristics of hogs fed high levels of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala Lam de Wit) leaf meal with and without ferrous sulfate supplementation


Arganosa, VG; Oliveros, BA; Rivas, ET
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 14th Annual Convention; Philippine International Convention Center, Manila; 11-12 November 1977; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1977; pp. n.p.

Abstract:
The same 54 crossbred female weanling pigs used by Rivas et al. (1977) were used to gather the data for this report. The animals were slaughtered upon reaching around 90 kg before fasting. The animals fed 0% ipil-ipil leaf meal had significant;y heavier empty small intesttine than those animals fed 20% ipil-ipil. The gall bladder from animals fed 0% ipil-ipil was significantly lighter than those animals fed 20% ipil-ipil. The lean cut yield of carcass weight of animals fed 0% was significantly higher than those fed 20% ipil-ipil. Other slaughter and carcass traits were not affected by ipil-ipil level in the ration.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95191

The production of growing-finishing pigs fed high level of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala Lamk de Wit) leaf meal with and without ferrous sulfate supplementation


Arganosa, VG; Lopez, PL; Rivas, ET
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 14th Annual Convention; Philippine International Convention Center, Manila; 11-12 November 1977; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1977; pp. n.p.

Abstract:
Fifty-four crossbred female weanling pigs were used in this study to determine the effects of high levels of ipil-ipil meal with and without ferrous sulfate on the rate and economy of gain of pigs. The pigs were fed for three periods, from 15 to 30 kg (Period I), 30 to 50 kg (Period II), and from 50 to 90 kg (Period III). Three levels of ipil-ipil (0,10 and 20 percent) and three levels of ferrous sulfate (0,0.2 and 0.4 percent) were used in iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations. A 3 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with an unequal number was used to analyze the data. Highly significant ipil-ipil leaf meal by ferrous sulfate interaction effects were observed in most production traits in three feeding periods.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95192

The effect of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala Lamk de Wit) leaves in its various physical forms in rice straw-based rations on growth performance and carcass characteristics and yield of bulls


Sevilla, CC; Perez, CB, Jr.; Gatmaitan, OM
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 13th Annual Convention; Abstracts of Papers; National Science Development Board Paulino J. Garcia Hall; Pedro Gil Street, Manila; 18-19 November 1976; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1976; pp. 33-34

Abstract:
Fourteen grade Zebu-Batangas bulls (Bos indicus), 1 1/2 to 2 years old, were used in two successive feeding trials to determine the effects of ipil-ipil leaves as supplement to rice straw on growth performance and carcass characteristics and yield. In feeding trial I, four rations consisting of 60% rice straw and 40% concentrate mixture or ipil-ipil leaves (fresh,dry and meal) were tested. No significant differences between treatments were observed on average daily gain (ADG), feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). The relatively poor feedlot performance of the bulls could be attributed to the low energy content of the rations.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95193

Anti-fertility effect of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit leaf meal on growth and reproductive function of laboratory animals


Deanon, ALS; Abilay, TA; Nemita, EN; Eusebio, VE; Sotaridona; PS; Lopez, PL
Proceedings; Philippine Society of Animal Science 13th Annual Convention; Abstracts of Papers; National Science Development Board Paulino J. Garcia Hall; Pedro Gil Street, Manila; 18-19 November 1976; The Philippine Society of Animal Science, College, Laguna; 1976; pp. 17-18

Abstract:
A series of three experiments using sixty-six (66) mice (Mus musculus) and twenty-four (24) male rats (Mus norvigicus albinus) were conducted to dertermine the anti-fertility effect of ipil-ipil leaf on the reproductive function on laboratory animals. The first experiment, arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme used thirty (30) sexually mature female mice;while the second experiment used thirty-six (36) growing mice. Both experiments had six (6) treatment groups consisting of three levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal (e.g. 0,10 and 20%) and two (2) levels of ferrous sulfate (e.g. 0 and 0.3%). The third experiment used twenty-four (24) sexually mature male rats fed with 0,10,20 and 30% ipil-ipil leaf meal. The feeding period lasted 14,6 and 5 weeks, respectively for experiments 1, 2 and 3.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95210

Effect of physical and chemical treatments on the nutrient and mimosine contents of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala. Lam de Wit) leaf meal


Bulatao, HA; Orden, EA; Aquino, DL
Abstracts of Water Buffalo Researches in the Philippines 1981-1995; Palacpac, EP and Battad, ZM(eds) Philippine Carabao Center, National Irrigation Administration Compound, EDSA, Quezon City; 142 p; 1996; p.10

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the nutrient and mimosine contents of ipil-ipil leaves as affected by physical and chemical treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of control (Treatment 1), soaking in 0.4% FeSO4 (Treatment 2) soaking in 4% NaOH (Treatment 3), soaking in tap water (Treatment 4), and immersing for five minutes in boiling water (Treatment 5). Analysis of variance revealed that crude ash, ether extract, crude protein, phosphorus, calcium, and mimosine contents of ipil-ipil were significantly affected by the physsical an chemical treatments used. On the other hand, crude fiber and nitrogen free extract were not significantly affected. All treatments used caused a reduction in the mimosine content of ipil-ipil with chemical method using 4% NaOH as the most effective.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95221

Performance of caraheifers on themeda pasture supplemented with ipil-ipil (L.leucocephala Linn.) concentrate and urea-molasses-mineral block (UMMB) during wet seasons


Neric, SP; Aquino, DL; dela Cruz, PC; Garillo, MB; Mamuad, FV; Ranjahn, SK
Abstracts of Water Buffalo Researches in the Philippines 1981-1995; Palacpac, EP and Battad, ZM(eds) Philippine Carabao Center, National Irrigation Administration Compound, EDSA, Quezon City; 142 p; 1996; p.25

Abstract:
Two studies were undertaken to determine the feeding value of dried ipil-ipil leaves compared to a concentrate mixtures as supplement to grazing carabao during the dry and wet season. Results showed that intake fro pasture did not differ significantly among treatments.

Availability :
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95269

Proximate chemical composition of giant ipil-ipil wood from different sources


Escalano, EU; Gonzales, EV; Semana, JA
FORPRIDE Digest 7(1): 18-22(1978)

Abstract:
Seven samples of giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] wood from different sources were studied for their proximate chemical compositions. Their compositions ranged from 69.8 to 73.9% holocellulose; 8.9-20.1% pentosans; 21.8-2.0% lignin; 1.4-3.0% alcohol-benzene solubles; 1.1-2.7% hot-water solubles; 13.0-16.4% caustic-soda solubles and 0.7-0.9% ash. These results showed that, based on their chemical composition, giant ipil-ipil us desirable material for pulp and paper manufacture.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95290

Utilization of ipil-ipil for wood


Bawagan, PV
FORPRIDE Digest 11(1&2): 57-67(1982)

Abstract:
The paper presents research results on giant ipil-ipil wood so far obtained at FPRDI, on proximate chemical composition; specific gravity and calorific value; fiber morphology; and mechanical properties for basic information. And for the potential uses of ipil-ipil wood research data on lumber recovery; parquet flooring; drying of lumber abd pole; preservative treatment; particleboard; hardboard; dissolving pulp and paper pulp are given and discussed. The results are considered encouraging and should desirably lead to more comprehensive research projects including economic feasibility.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95448

Antimutagens from Leucaena leucocephala Lamk


Guevarra, AP; Nakar, J; Dimagiba, N; Sakurai, H; Hashimoto, K; Maoka, T; Fujiwara, Y
The Philippine Journal of Science 128(1): 39-47(1999)

Abstract:
Two isolates A1d and B1 obtained from the hexane and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the crude ethanol extract of the seeds of Leucaena leucocephala Lamk., locally known in the PHilippines as ipil-ipil, exhibited antimutagenic activities when tested in the micronucleus test. NMR and MS data indicated that A-1d was amixture of b-sitosterol (1) and stigmasterol (2) while B-1 was a mixture of 3-0-(b-glucosyl)-sitosterol (3) and 3-0(b-D-glucosyl)-stigmasterol (4).|Another antimutagenic isolate A3 and an antimutagenic fraction A10 were also obtained. The structure of A3 was not elucidated because the compound decomposed after prolonged exposure to light. The fractionation of A10 proved difficult and is still underway. Preliminary results indicate that the major components of the fraction is a mixture of fatty acids, with C-22H-44O-2 as the major acid.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95469

The use of organic fertilizer in coconut (a research note)


Mantiquilla, JH; Canja, LH; Margate, RZ; Magat, SS
The Philippine Journal of Coconut Studies 19(1): 8-13(1994)

Abstract:
The review revealed varying degree of response to organic fertilization in coconut. However, consistent positive response in terms of growth and yield of coconut was obtained whne organic fertilizer were combined with inroganic fertilizer high in chloride-a macronutrient of the crop. It strongly appears that much work is still needed to understand the effect of organic fertilizers alone and organic fertilizers plus inorganci fertilizer (Integrated Soil Fertility Management or ISFM) on the soil properties, leaf nutrients, growth, and yield of coconut.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95702

Rotary veneer cutting of four fast-growing plantation hardwood species


Sicad, ENB
FPRDI Journal 16(1&2): 86-104(1987)

Abstract:
This study dealt on the rotary cutting of four fast-growing plantation hardwood species, namely: Kaatoan bangkal {Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp], giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit], Mollucan sau [Albiazia falcataria (L.) Fosb.] and yemane (Gmelina arborea R.Br.). The effects of nosebar compression (NC), knife angle (KA) and veneer thickness used for evaluation were thickness uniformity, depth of lathe checks (tightness) and surface smoothness. Veneer thickness was found highly significant in relation to the tightness and smoothness and thickness uniformity. Knife angle setting influenced greatly the thickness uniformity of the veneers.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95701

Composition analysis of ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit] seed gum


Pamplona, BS; Zerrudo, JV
FPRDI Journal 18(1-4): 4-14(1989)

Abstract:
The chemical composition of the water-soluble component of ipil-ipil [K-28 Cunningham and native (Copil No.2) varieties] seeds was studied. The gum content was analyzed for its composition, viscosity and IR spectra. On the average, the fat-free seeds yielded 35.0% hot water-soluble matter which contained 22.5% total sugars, 19.2% proteins, 0.33% tannin and 14.9% ethanol-precipitated gum. PC and HLPC analyses showed the presence of mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.3:1.0 (man:gal) in the acid hydrolozate of the gum. The gum isolate had an intrinsic viscoxity of 7.7 dL/g. A 1,000 ppm aqueous solution exhibited a 2.29 cp viscosity. The IR spectra of the gum were similar to those of authentic Lucerne (Medicago sativa) galactomannan,especially in the finger print region.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95718

Properties of particleboards made from lesser-used species in the Philippines and Japan


Sakuno, T; Mallari, VC, Jr.; Mari, EL
Proceedings;2nd Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference;Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI), College, Laguna;15-21 October 1989;FPRDI, College, Laguna, Philippines;1989;pp.67-76

Abstract:
The properties of particleboard produced from fast-growing, lesser-used wood species in the Philippines and japan were determined and evaluated. Boards produced from the Philippines' giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) with specific gravity (SG) of 0.64 exhibited mechanical strength and dimensional stability far superior than boards made from japan's niseakashia (Robinia pseudoacacia Linn., SG 0.72). The other Philippine species, kaatoan bangkal (Anthocephalus chinensi (Lamk.) Rich. ex walp.), SG 0.38 had aremarkably different characteristics board dimensional stability. This is related to the large difference in board compaction ratio resulting from raw material density.|In another experiment, giant ipil-ipil particles with nitric acid at 3% level were produced into particleboard by bonding with furfuryl alcohol and a small amount of isocyanate resin adhesive. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of these boards were found superior to boards produced from untreated wood with isocyanate resin as binder. The treated boards also showed encouraging results in the decay resistance test.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95745

Growth improvement of two forest tree legumes by VA mycorrhizal inoculations


Aggangan, NS; dela Cruz, RE
The Philippine Journal of Biotechnology 2(1): 72-80(1991)

Abstract:
Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala were inoculated separately with Gigaspora margarita, Scutellispora persica and Scleocystis clavispora in an autoclaved P-deficient soil collected in a degraded grassland. G.margarita and S.persica were equally effective in promoting growth if the Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala. Height, diameter and dry matter yield of both hosts inoculated with G.margarita and S,persica were significantly greater than uninoculated seedlings. Sclerocystis clavispora was ineffective such that growth obtained through inoculation with this fungus was comparable with that of the uninoculated ones.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95776

Hardboard from Peru giant ipil-ipil


Semana, JA; Lasmarias, VB; Ballon, CH
FPRDI Journal 12(3&4): 61-66(1983)

Abstract:
Two and one-half year old Peru giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocepahala (Lam.) de Wit] wood grown in Davao was made into hardboard by the wet process, using 0.5% was sizing and a total hot-pressing time of 6.5 minutes. The hardboard produced met the requirements of the Philippine Standards for standard-type hardboard.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95777

Effect of moisture content on the flaking characteristics of giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit]


Eusebio, GA
FPRDI Journal 12(3&4): 41-48(1983)

Abstract:
Four-year old giant ipil-ipil K28-variety logs with moisture contents of 15%, 45% and 60% were tested for flaking characteristics. Results showed that as moisture content decreased from 60% to 15%, the percentage of dust increased from 5.9 to 11.0% and the flake width decreased from 2.92 to 2.12 mm. The optimum moisture content for giant ipil-ipil before flaking should be not less than 30%.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95835

The state-of-the-art in clonal propagation of Philippine reforestation species: prospects and limitations


Amparado, RF; Cali, NC; Mero, DC
Proceedings; International Conference on Reforestation with Philippine Species for Biodiveristy Protection and Economic Progress; Palo Leyte; 3-6 March 1997; Visayas State College of Agriculture-Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Applied Tropical Ecology Program; 1997; pp.366-373

Abstract:
The dwindling Philippine Forest reserves brought about by rapid exploitation and extraction of these invaluable resources at unprecedented phase demands immediate replenishment and regeneration. Related to this, forest biodiversity which encompasses the flora and fauna within these reserves is getting close to becoming endangered. A vigorous reforestation program should remedy the sad state of our forest. However, the massive reforestation effort of the government as envisioned in the Forestry Master Plan for Philippines 2000 demands as enormous amount of planting stocks.|This paper focuses on the current trends in planting stock production. The drawbacks in the conventional way of producing planting materials from seeds are presented. Emerging alternative technologies and the prospects of which in keeping pace with the demand of planting materials are discussed. As a matter of fact, we are now on the threshold of witnessing a whole new horizon of exciting innovations in seedling production. On the other hand, the limitations of the application of clonal propagation technology in the Philippines are also outlined and the remedies proposed.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division, Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 95872

Physico-mechanical properties and possible uses of eleven plantation-grown timber species in the Philippines


Tamolang, FB; Rocafort, JE
FPRDI Journal 16(1&2): 75-85(1987)

Abstract:
This study presents the indicative average physical and mechanical properties of 11 plantation-grown timber species in the Philippines. The properties were determined from tests on small clear specimens of timber. Properties studied include relative density, shrinkage, bending, shear-parallel-to-grain, compression-parallel-to-grain and compression-perpendicular-to-grain, hardness and toughness. Based on the classification of the species in accordance with the five physico-mechanical property groupings devised by FPRDI, (a) giant ipil-ipil, Benguet pine, big-leafed mahogany, yemane and teak are recommended for medium construction purposes; (b) para-rubber for moderately light construction; and (c) kaatoan bangkal, moluccan sau, gubas, bagras and lumbang for light construction purposes where strength and durability are not critical requirements. The values presented only apply to defect-free materials and care should be taken when they are used for structural design purposes.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96369

Degradation characteristics of selected fodder tree legumes for goats and sheep feeding


Orden, EA; Cruz, EM; Upreti, CR; delos Reyes, PQR; Ramos, RR
Abstracts of Completed and On-going R&D Projects 2003. A compilation p.27-28 (2003); Compiled by Dela Cruz, NE; Roxas, ADC; Garcia, ZDC; Santos, AL; Nebres, JO; Gas, GM

Abstract:
Three upgraded (Merino x Philippine Native) male sheep with mean body weight of 30 kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used to determine the degradation characteristics of commonly used fodder tree legumes for sheep and goat. Fresh leaves of acacia (Samanea saman), arachis (Arachis pintoi), desmanthus (Desmanthus sp), flemingia (Flemingia sp). ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), renzonii (Desmodium renzonii), sebania-hedge (Sesbania sesban) and sesbania trees (Sesbania grandiflora) were collected, sun dried and ground to pass a 2 mm screen prior to rumen incubation. Nylon bags (internal dimension of 8 x 12 cm; pore size of 47 um) containing about 3 g air dried samples were incubated in duplicate for 0, 4, 8, 16, 16 and 48 hours (Orskov et al 1979 and McDonald 1981). Residual samples were fitted to the NEWAY F-Curve computer software (x.B. Chen, 1995) to determine degradation characteristics of the diets based on the models; p = a+b (1 - e ct) where p = degradation after t = time (h); a = soluble or highly degradable fraction; b = slowly degradable fraction which disappears at a constant fraction rate (c); c = degradation rate (per h) (Orskov and McDonald, 1979). The slowly degradable fraction (b) was re-estimated as B = (a+b)-A, where A = actual soluble fraction (washing loss), (Orskov and Ryle 1990).|The DM disappearance of the selected tree legumes varied at different incubation time. More than 40 percent of the DM from renzonii and S. grandiflora was found to be highly soluble (a). On the otherhand, arachis, desmanthus and S.sesban indicated more 55% of its DM portion was insoluble but degradable at certain incubation time. Among the tested forage, the effective degradability at 0.02 outflow rate was highest for S.grandiflora, 85% followed by S.sesban, (84.9%), Desmanthus sp (75.6%), Arachis (73.0%), renzonii (71.6%). Flemingia recorded the lowest effective degradability of 34.7% indicating the lower degradability of this particular forage in the rumen compared to other forages. Both the higher soluble (A) and slowly degradable fraction (B) contributed to the higher potential degradability of these forage legumes. Among the tested forages, flemingia had a lower potential degradable fraction (36.6%) which was contributed by lower B fraction that indicates the lower degradability characteristics.

Availability :
Consortia Operations Office, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96370

Effects of concentrate supplementation on tissue mineral content of upgraded goats under pure confinement


Orden, EA; Hayashida, M; Cruz, EM; delos Reyes, PQS, Galamgam, AS; Fujihara, T
Abstracts of Completed and On-going R&D Projects 2003. A compilation p.30 (2003); Compiled by Dela Cruz, NE; Roxas, ADC; Garcia, ZDC; Santos, AL; Nebres, JO; Gas, GM

Abstract:
A total of twelve 3-4 month old upgraded goats (Native X AN) with mean body weight of 8.8 kg were equally divided into two groups to determine the effects of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) supplementation on tissue calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se) of goats under intensive system of operation. Aside from the forage diet, ipil-ipil leaves were given to the treated group at the rate of 150-200 g daily and was adjusted based on their body weight increment during the five months feeding period. At the end of experiment, the animals were slaughtered and about 1 g sample each of spleen, kidney, lungs, pancreas, liver, heart, rib bone, biceps femoris, thyroid gland and testicles were collected to determine the mineral concentration. Samples were subjected to wet ashing using nitric acid before S, CA, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Se concentration were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer (ICPS) and flourometric detection of 2, 3-diamononaphthalene (watkinson, 1966).|Except for the testicles, the addition of ipil-ipil leaves did not result to significant differences on the mineral content of the various tissues of goats fed with forage diet made up mainly of napier (Pennisetum purpureum), paragrass (Brachiaria mutica) and stargrass (Cynodon plectustachyus). Apparently, the S, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Se content of the spleen, kidney, lungs, pancreas, liver, heart, rib bone, biceps femoris, thyroid gland and testicles were not affected by the increase in the nutrient intake of growing upgraded goats. Moreover, the average mean S, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Se were within the normal range (McDowell, 1985). Results indicated that there were enough amounts of S, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, and Se from the forage diet which supplied the requirements of growing goats. Thus, mineral imbalance is unlikely to appear among goats even during their growing stage due to adequate supply from the basal forage diet.

Availability :
Consortia Operations Office, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96400

New Leucaena species/hybrids


Faylon, PS; Lanting, EF; Joven, JEA
R&D Milestones: Livestock 2 26-27 (2002)

Abstract:
Some less known Leucaena species and some of their hybrids have high potential for livestock production. They have high tolerance/resistance to psyllid infestation, wide environmental adaptation, high forage yield, and other good attributes. These Leucaena species/hybrids include the following:|The KX2 F1 hybrid, a cross between L. leucocephala K636 and L.pallida K748, has excellent seedling growth, strong resistance to psyllids, high herbage yield, and high palatability to animals.|L. leucocephala cv. K636 has strong tolerance to psyllid damage, has superior forage quality, is less woody, and can easily be propagated by seed. It it most suitable for wide-scale planting in commercial ranches where soil pH is above 5.0.|L.macrophylla 47/85 is a psyllid-resistant species and yields very high herbage, more than two times higher than locally grown 'ipil-ipil'.|L.collinsi is also high resistance to psyllid attack, produces high edible yields, and has good regrowth ability.|The new Leucaena species/hybrids are more productive in areas where the soil is not highly acidic (soil pH should not be <5.0).

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 96496

Effects of ipil-ipil leaves applied as green manure combined with different rates of potassium on the growth and yield of sweetpotato


Raroque, CB; Collante, AL
TCA [Tarlac College of Agriculture] Research Journal 9 (1): 113-121 (1987)

Abstract:
Soil incorporation of fresh ipil-ipil leaves during the final harrowing at the rate of 2 tons per hectare significantly improved the root yield of sweet potato. However, application of additional potassium to plots applied with ipil-ipil leaves failed to improve the root yield.|Moreover, plants grown in plots with ipil-ipil leaves alone gave the highest monetary advantage of P 2.92 return per peso cost.

Availability :
Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 96498

Utilization of water-treated ipil-ipil seed meal in broiler ration


Melchor, PI; Valdez, MTSJ
TCA [Tarlac College of Agriculture] Research Journal 9 (1): 130-137 (1987)

Abstract:
A four-week feeding trial on broilers fed with ration containing varying levels (0, 5, 10, 15%) of water-treated ipil-ipil seed meal was conducted to determine the performance of Magnolia broilers.|Partial replacement of commercial ration with ipil-ipil seed meal resulted to highly significant improvement on the growth performance of broilers. The ration containing 5% ipil-ipil seed meal produced the heaviest birds at market age and the most efficient feed converters. Further, there was significant reduction in the cost of feed needed to produce a kg broiler with savings of P2.11 for every kilogram of broiler. The income over feed cost was also significantly increased when 5% ipil-ipil seed meal was used.

Availability :
Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 96505

Influence of soil incorporation of ipil-ipil and madre de cacao leaves on the growth and yield of cassava


Rosete, FS; Molina, A
TCA [Tarlac College of Agriculture] Research Journal 6 (2&3): 74-78 (1984)

Abstract:
Cassava is generally considered a rustic crop which grow relatively well on poor soil, even without applying fertilizer. However, farmers plant it as the last in a crop rotation because it exhausts soil nutrients Hongsapan (1962) reports that in Thailand, yields drop from 25-36 tons/ha level to 12-18 tons/ha due to continous production.|Moreover, nutrient extraction by the crop also enhances soil erosion especially during seeding and after harvest.|To maintain soil fertility, therefore it is necessary to fertilize soil with the same quantity that the crop used. Application of organic matter like leguminous crops as green manure may prove useful to maintain the production fertility level of the soil, and prevent soil erosion.|This study was specifically conducted to determine the effects of ipil-ipil leaves and madre de cacao as influenced by time abd rate of application on the growth and yield of cassava and to evaluate the status of the soil when applied with green manure crops.

Availability :
Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 96504

Influence of tree legume leaves on the yield of IR 56-1


Rosete, FS; Briones, R
TCA [Tarlac College of Agriculture] Research Journal 6 (2&3): 69-73 (1984)

Abstract:
Techniques that can increase food production withot spending large quantities of energy are assuming great importance. Perhaps the most important task is to unfold the potentials of mankind providing them the modern technology in order to solve the problem of world hunger and malnutrition by methods than lessen exploitation of non-renewable energy resources (NAS, 1979).|Green manuring, despite wide recognition of its merits, has not attained universal adoptions by the farmers (Vacchani and Kurts, 1964). This practice of turning into the soil undecomposed green plant tissue in a proper and well-managed way may materially alleviate the crop producing capacity of the soil. It enhances to meet the shortage of nitrogen fertilizer aggravated by the escalating prices of such item. Hence, this study was conducted.|The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of tree legume leaves on the growth and yield of IR-56 lowland rice variety, and to determine which of the tree legume leaves utilized as green manure could give the best result for IR-56.

Availability :
Tarlac College of Agriculture




NO. 96512

The efficacy of different placements of ipil-ipil on corn


Abellanosa, AB; Baltazar, HM
PAC [Pampanga Agricultural College] Research Journal 3(1): 1-6 (1980)

Abstract:
The study was conducted at the Pampanga Agricultural College, Magalang, Pampanga to find out which of the different ipil-ipil placments will give the most grain yield for maize.|Four (4) treatments including the control, replicated four times were studied. These treatments namely: control, mulch, furrow and mixed methods were allocated on plots measuring 3 meters by 5 meters following the randomized complete block design.|Results of the study disclosed that the height of the plants at 30 days after planting and at maturity, and number of kernels were significantly affected by the method of ipil-ipil placements wherein an increase in plant height and number of kernels per ear were noted on corn plants on furrow method of placements. However, the data obtained on the height of plants at 60 days after planting and weight of husked ear, shelling percentage and average weight of shelled corn were not significantly influenced by the different methods of ipil-ipil placement.

Availability :
Pampanga Agricultural College, Library




NO. 96514

Response of mungo to different amounts of ipil-ipil leaves


Dizon, IT; Baltazar, HM
PAC [Pampanga Agricultural College] Research Journal 3(1): 10-16 (1980)

Abstract:
A study to find out the effects of different amounts of ipil-ipil leaves on the growth and yield performance of mungo was conducted at the Pampanga Agricultural College (PAC) from February 1979 to May 1979.|Four treatments including the control were studied, which are as follows: T1-control, T2-one ton ipil-ipil leaves/ha, T3-two tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha and T4-three tons ipil-ipil leaves/ha. The Randomized Complete Block Design was used in the study.|Results revealed that ipil-ipil leaves did not significantly influence the weight of 1,000 dry mungo seeds and the shelling percentages, but significant increases were obtained on the height of plants at maturity, length of pods, weight of pods per sample area, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant and actual seed yield from plants applied with three tons of ipil-ipil leaves per hectare.

Availability :
Pampanga Agricultural College, Library




NO. 96515

Milk production performance of improved native does fed with paragrass [Brachiara mutica (Forsk) Stapf] in combination with ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit] and calopo [Calopogomium muconoides (Desv)]


Hernandez, VD; Alvarez, FR
PAC [Pampanga Agricultural College] Research Journal 9(1): 19-25 (1986)

Abstract:
A study involving F2 does (75 percent Anglo-Nubian and 25 percent native) raised under confinement and fed with and without calopogonium was conducted in two seasons in a 91-day lactation period at the Dairy-Beef-Chevon Complex of the Department of Animal Science, Pampanga Agricultural College, Magalang, Pampanga.|Confined F2 does fed with paragrass in combination with ipil-ipil leaves and calopogonium produced more milk in both seasons compared to does fed with paragrass and ipil-ipil (P/.05). However, actual milk yield express in fat corrected milk (FCM) of does fed with paragrass ipil-ipil and calopogonium was not as nutritious as the milk produced by does fed without calopogonium, (P/.05).|Lactation curve in a 91-day lacatation period followed a general trend like those repored in literature. Lactation curve during wet season, however, showed a marked decline on both treatments at 3 to 4 weeks after kidding.|Dry matter consumption was higher on those fed with calopogonium (P/.05).|Except fro crude protein and crude fat, the nitrogen free extract, ash and crude fiber of ration containing calopogonium is higher on both seasons

Availability :
Pampanga Agricultural College, Library




NO. 96527

Effects of phosphorus fertilization, plant population density and height of cutting on yield of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala [Lam.] de Wit)


del Carmen, OV
PAC [Pampanga Agricultural College] Research Journal 5(1): 35-41 (1982)

Abstract:
A study was conducted at the Central Experiment Station, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, from December 1978 to July 1980 to determine the effect of phosphorous fertilization, plant population density and height of cutting on yield of leucaena.|Herbage yield of leucaena was neither affected by plant population density (50,000 to 100,000 and 150,000 plants/hectare) nor by level of phosphorous fertilization (50 kg P205 to 100 kg P 2 0 r/hectare). height of cutting significantly higher herbage yield over cutting heights of 15 cm and 30 cm.|The proportion of leaf to stem yield expressed in terms of percent leaf component was not markedly affected by plant population density, phosphorous fertilization and cutting height. On the average, harvested herbage consisted of 55% leaves and 45% stem.|Percent nitrogen in leaves and stem was not affected by population density, phosphorous fertilization and height of cutting.|Persistence of ipil-ipil plants after over a year of recurrent cutting was significantly affected by plant population density and height of cutting. Plant population density at 50,000 plants per hectare was maintained almost 100% while those at 100,000 plants decreased by about 9% and those at 150,000 plants decreased by about 15% after subjecting the plants to periodic cutting.|The 100cm stubble height had 98% of the original plant population density after the last cutting while stubble height of 30 cm decreased by 8% and 15 cm stubble height by 13%.|Weed density was markedly affected by height of cutting. There was more than two to three times more weeds in plots where ipil-ipil stubble height was maintained at 30 cm and 15 cm, respectively,as compared to those where stubble height was 100cm.

Availability :
Pampanga Agricultural College, Library




NO. 96691

Sustainability indicators of the Hanunuo Mangyan indigenous agroforestry systems


Marcon, CN
Proceedings 12th STARRDEC Regional Symposium on Research and Development Highlights, Rizal State College, Tanay, Rizal, Philippines, 20 August 1999

Abstract:
Sustainable agroforestry is a system of land management wherein the physical, biological, economic and cultural components of the site are preserved or improved through time. It help the country in solving the problems of food production, poverty and degradation of the upland areas.

Availability :
Southern Tagalog Agriculture Resources Research and Development Consortium One Stop Information Shop




NO. 26440

The effects legume mulch on the growth of maize crop (Zea mays L.)


Victor Petrus, A
Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2000; p68

Abstract:
A study to determine the effects legume mulch on the growth of the maize crop (Zea mays L.) Putra J -5 S variety was conducted at Ladang 2, Universiti Putra Malaysia. The legumes used were Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Arachis pintoi. The objective of this study was to determine the best legume that was suitable to be used as organic fertilizer. The parameter studied were the height, leaves and nodes number, fruit dry weight, fruit diameter, fruit size (length), percentage of organic matter, percentage of NPK in the legumes and soil pH before planting and after harvesting. The results showed that three legume mulch were suitable as organic fertilizer. However, the effects were different with each type of legume mulch. Leucaena leucocephala mulch was the most effective, followed by Gliricidia sepium and Arachis pintoi. Meanwhile all legumes mulches studied also improved the growth and the qualities of the maize crop Putra J -58 variety.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26458

The effect of adding two legumes in silage made from Dwarf napier


Helmi Azro, MH
Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; University Putra Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor; 2001; p55

Abstract:
The study was conducted at Ladang 2, Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of adding two legumes Gliricidia sepium and Lueceana leucocephala in silage made from Dwarfnapier (Pennisetum purpuruem). The study was conducted over 14 week period. The Complete Randomized Design was used With 3 replications for each treatment. There were seven treatments which are T1 (100% Dwarf napier), T2 (80% Dwarf napier +' 20% Leuceana), T3 (70% Dwarf napier + 30% Leuceana), T4 (60% Dwarfnapier + 40% Leuceana), T5 (80% Dwarf napier + 20% Gliricidia), T6 (70% Dwarf napier + 30% Gliricidia) and T7 (60% Dwarf Napier + 40% Gliricidia). Six weeks old grasses and legmnes were cut and ensiled. Sample of silage were taken at 14 days, 28 days, 42 days and 52 days from ensilation. Measurements taken on the silage sample were pH content, lactic acid content, crude protein content, buffering capacity, dry weight content and soluble sugar content. The result of this study shows that the addition of legumes in the silage improved its nutritional value especially protein and decreased the pH value. The addition of legumes did not affect the soluble sugar content and lactic acid silage. T 4 (60% Dwarfnapier + 40% Leuceana) and T6 (70% Dwarfnapier + 30% Gliricidia) were recognized to have the highest nutrition value compared to all other treatment. High crude protein content and low pH level make the silage suitable as feed supplement for livestock and enable it to be stored for a long time.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 26394

Effects on silage quality of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) with addition of two type of legumes, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium


Syam, S
Faculty of Agriculture; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

BSc Thesis; Serdang; Selangor; University Putra Malaysia; 2001; p51

Abstract:
An experiment was done at Ladang Dua, UPM, Serdang, Selangor to evaluate the effects on silage quality of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) with addition of two type of legumes, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium. The objective was to compare silage from King Grass silage (100%) with that obtained from addition of two type of legumes, leucaena and gliricidia at the rate of 20%, 30% and 40% of each types of legume. The parameters evaluated were pH, dry matter, soluble sugar, lactic acid, buffering capacity and crude protein. In addition, this study also observed the changes in the silage fermentation by addition of leucaena and gliricidia. The design used was CRD with 7 treatments and each treatment has 3 replications. The study was conducted over 8 weeks and sample were taken every 2 weeks. The result from the experiment shows that addition of leucaena and gliricidia increased the silage quality by decreasing pH, increasing dry matter, buffering capacity and crude protein but has no effect on soluble sugar and lactic acid concentrations.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 95988

International consultation on ipil-ipil research


Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research

Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No.8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 37

Abstract:
A compilation of the paper presented during the first International Consultation on ipil-ipil research sponsored by the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research (PCARR) and the United States National Academy of Science (USNAS) held on September, 1976 at the University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Twenty-one resource papers are included that discussed data, concepts and limitations on the use of leucaena for wood, forage, paper, etc.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 21921

Growth data from Sabah soft woods Sdn Bhd Plantations of some fast-growing leguminous trees'


Chong, TK
Sabah Softwoods Sdn Bhd, Brumas, Sabah, Malaysia

Proceedings of a workshop on Leucaena Research in the Asian-Pacific Region, 23-26 November 1982, Singapore, Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Center, 1983; p 155-158

Abstract:
In 1974, Sabah Softwoods Sdn Bhd was created to manage a 6.0 X 104 ha afforestation program; to date. it has planted 2.3 X 104 ha. some of which include Albizia falcataria, Acacia mangium. and Leucaena leucocephala. Data on height and diameter are being collected, and preliminary indications are that Albizia falcataria, planted at 600 -900 stems1ha is sawlog class by age 8 years: that, at the some spacing, A. mangium has a mean annual increment in volume equal to 30 m3/ha; and that timing is essential in the soils of Sabah where Leucaena leucocephala is grown but is regarded as uneconomic (Author's abstract).

Availability :
National University of Singapore




NO. 95987

Breaking hard-seedness of ipil-ipil


Correa, CB
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No.8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 2

Abstract:
This paper discusses the results obtained by UPLB seed specialist on the best method of scarifying ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seeds. Soaking the seeds for 13-30 min in concentrated sulfuric acid gives the earliest and uniform germination. However, for practical purposes, soaking old seeds in boiling water for 5 seconds is recommended. Newly-harvested seeds may be placed in boiling water for 15 seconds for good results.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 21918

Research on Leucaena forage production in Malaysia


Wong CC; Devendra, C
Animal Production Division, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Proceedings of a workshop on Leucaena Research in the Asian-Pacific Region, 23-26 November 1982, Singapore, Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Center, 1983; p 55-60

Abstract:
in Malaysia, where soils are generally acidic and highly saturated with aluminum, research at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute indicates that rhizobial inoculation and lime-pelleting of Leucaena leucocephala seeds are essential for successful establishment and growth. Screening of Leucaena cultivars tolerant to aluminum shows some promising results. Other results of research at MARDI have been reviewed. Studies on mimosine content indicate that it is highest in the shoot tips, first-expanded leaves, flowering heads, and young pods. In the foliage and stems, it declines with age and with increases in the time between leaf harvests. Annual dry-matter yields of between 13.5 t1ha and 21.9 t1ho have been recorded from some promising accessions. A 77-day growth study with goats fed leucaena forage and gross at ratios of I : 4, 1 : 1, and 4: 1 showed a positive correlation between increasing leucaena and live-weight gain, with the highest gain being recorded at 75% dietary leucaena. It was suggested that about 50 dietary leucaena level is suitable for goats. Grazing studies with leucaena-gross pastures have been promising, and daily live-weight gains of Sahiwal-Friesian heifers have averaged 443 gr. The results, together, demonstrate and emphasize the potential value of leucaena forage for ruminants (Author's abstract).

Availability :
National University of Singapore




NO. 21919

Leucaena leucocephala as a tall cover crop for sawlog plantations


Ng, F; Zulkifly bin Haji Mokhtar, SP; Ghani bin Abdul Aziz, AA
Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Serdang, Malaysia

Proceedings of a workshop on Leucaena Research in the Asian-Pacific Region, 23-26 November 1982, Singapore, Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Center, 1983; p 113-118

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala seldom exceeds 20 m high and usually stops growing at 15 m or less in most sites in Malaysia. Hence, it is too small to be a sawlog species. However, because it is fast growing, it may play a useful role as a tall cover crop in sawlog plantations where the sawlog species is expected to grow to 30 m or more. Preliminary results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala as a cover crop for teak and Araucaria sp. have proved promising (Author's abstract).

Availability :
National University of Singapore




NO. 21920

Fast-growing leguminous trees in Sabah


Jones, N
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/United Nations Development Programme, FAO-UNDP-Project MALI 781009, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia

Proceedings of a workshop on Leucaena Research in the Asian-Pacific Region, 23-26 November 1982, Singapore, Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Center, 1983; p 149-154

Abstract:
The importance of high growth rates of trees in the tropics is highlighted, particularly in relation to the future demands for wood products in Asia. In Sabah, Malaysia, the need for high volumes of wood and for tree legumes in reclamation of land degraded by excessive cultivation has prompted tree planting and trials with two major species: Acacia mangium and Albizia falcataria. Two other spccies. Acacia auriculiformis and Gliricidia sepium are mentioned the latter grown primarily for its value as cocoa shade in the state. Special attention is drawn to the importance of seed origin and the dangers of over expanding populations of limited genetic base. The biological ease with which some species can be generatively or vegetatively propagated makes overexpansion a real possibility (Author's abstract).

Availability :
National University of Singapore




NO. 95989

Coating ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seed with Arasan-75


Dalmacio, MV
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No.8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 2

Abstract:
Coating seeds of ipil-ipil with 7.5 percent active ingredients Arasan-75 WP (tetramethyl thiuramdisulfide, 75% and bound to the seed coat with Dow Latex 512 R), significantly increased seed germination. Fungi attacked some untreated seeds but not the treated ones.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95993

Furrow-seeding of ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca Benth.) versus other direct-seeding methods


Meimban, JR
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 4

Abstract:
This study records the result 3 months after directly-seeding broad 4 experimental lots having different silvicultural conditions: (1) previously burned grassland, furrowed and directly-seeded to ipil-ipil; (2) grassy area, unburned and furrowed; (3)burned area no furrowing (4)grassy, uncleaned, unfurrowed. As expected, more seedlings survived in the burned and furrowed area.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95985

Dibbling ipil-ipil and cost of reforestation


Benge, MD
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No.8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 1

Abstract:
This article notes the success of dibbling ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seeds using the traditional pointed stick method of upland crop culture and a redesigned corn planter. Pelletizing of ipil-ipil seeds and land preparation by burning are also discussed.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95986

Height growth and survival of giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seedlings potted in different soil media


Cadiz, RT
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No.8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 1

Abstract:
1:1 topsoil, sand and 2:1 topsoil, humus were tried as potting media for giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala). No significant differences in percent survival and height growth were observed among the seedlings grown in these media.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95997

Second progress report on aerial seeding of ipil-ipil (Leucaena glanca (L.) Benth) in Cawag, Subic Zambales


San Buenaventura, P; Assidao, F
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 5

Abstract:
This report deals on the condition of aerially-seeded native leucaena seeds in Zambales. Observation made one year after broadcasting indicate the following: 1)Scalding seeds before broadcasting has marked advantage over the untreated seeds in the rate of survival. 2)Seedlings that grew from scalded seeds a significant differences of 1.8 cm in the average height over those grown from seeds not scalded. 3)Scalding hastened germination but also caused the rotting as well as dessication of many sprouts before they could get a foothold on the soil. 4)Percentage survival was poor with 1.49% and 1.75% for treated and untreated seeds. 5)growth and development of the seedlings were very poor.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96000

Variations in mimosine content among Leucaena species and related mimosaceae


Brewbaker, JL; Hylin, JW
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 7

Abstract:
Mimosine is a toxic alkaloid apparently unique to the genus Leucaena. Concentrations from about 2 to 5% were observed in a world collection of Leucaena strains while mimosine was not found on 10 other Mimosaceous genera. Breeding of low mimosine lines of the important legume, L. leucocephala, appears promising from crosses with Columbian strains of L. leucocephala or with the species, L. pulverulenta. The probability of producing mimosineless Leucaena must be considered remote at the present time.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95990

The effect of stone mulch on the growth rate of Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminaceae) (L.) Benth. in Cebu City, Philippines


Granert, W
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 2-3

Abstract:
The results of the eight month observation, though somewhat inconclusive, show that there is a notable tendency for the growth under mulched conditions to move towards a significant increase over non-mulched trees, especially during the dry season, when the need for water becomes critical.|Other benefits maybe derived from the use of stone mulch on hillsides. First, during the period of heavy rainfall, soil was constantly washed away from the upper roots of unmulched trees while the empty spaces between the rocks of mulched trees were being filled with soil. Second, some of the non-mulched trees showed general yellowing of leaves much sooner than the mulched trees. Third, there was a preponderance of earthworm casting mixed with the rock mulches, an indication of the presence of this very beneficial organism for soil enrichment.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95991

How to grow ipil-ipil


Lambert, LO
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 3

Abstract:
The direct seeding and transplanting methods of establishing ipil-ipil plantations are discussed. Tips on how to break seed dormancy, to inoculate the seeds, prepare a suitable potting media, sow, care for the seedlings in the nursery, outplant and care for newly outplanted seedlings are given.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95992

Giant ipil-ipil


Mahilum, BC
Abstract on Leucaena; Forestr Research Institute Reference Series No.8;Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 3

Abstract:
A short note on the status of the giant ipil-ipil project at Visayas State College of Agriculture (VISCA). It reports the attack of seedlings by twig or bark borer. Sucking insects attack young pods.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95998

The response of ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca) seedlings to phosphorus fertilization on a soil from the Carranglan area, Nueva Ecija


Stone, EL; Angeles, LD
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 6

Abstract:
The addition of lime or phosphorus increased the growth of the ipil-ipil seedlings in pot cultures using soil from Carranglan, Nueva Ecija. The amounts tested were equivalent to 12 metric tons per hectare of calcium carbonate and 40 kg and 200kg per hectare of phosphate.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95994

Adaptability of six tree species to cogonal areas


Mendoza, VB; dela Cruz, R
Abstract on Leucaena;Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 4

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted to determine the adaptive capacity of 6 tree species to grassland conditions. Seedling height and diameter growths were not significantly different. However, significant differences in survival among the 6 species were evident with ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit] having the highest survival rate followed by agoho (Casuarina equisetifolia Forst.), river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dhenh.), Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex GOrdon), binayuyu (Antidesma frutescens Jack), and alibangbang (Piliostigma malabaricum (Roxb.)Benth) in that order.|Concentration of elements in seedlings grown in the field was the same as that in seedlings grown in the box experiment. Concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium in the seedlings were generally highe at the start of the experiment than at the terminal period. Ipil-ipil, river red gum, Benguet pine, binayuyu and alibangbang seedlings, however, accumulated magnesium in thier tissues. Nitrogen concentration in ipil seedlings and phosphorus concentration in river red gum and Benguet pine seedlings showed slight increases.|Air temperature was higher at 12 noon than at 6am, 5pm or 12midnight. Soil temperature was lowest in cogon grassland (23.9C) at 8:30 am and highest (34.5 C) at 1:30pm.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95996

Direct-seeding of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala)


Rimando, EF; Dalmacio, MV
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 5

Abstract:
The applicability of direct-seeding as a fast way of rehabilitating and reforesting critical watershed areas was tested in Carranglan, Nueva Ecija, Central Luzon. Native and giant (Hawaiian K8) ipil-ipil varieties were used. The one-year data shows that site preparation increases survival of both varieties. Soaking of seeds at 80C and drilling in scalped cultivated plots gave the most significant results in germination, survival and height growth.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 95999

Guide to the systematics of the genus Leucaena


Brewbaker, JL
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 7

Abstract:
The systematics of the genus Leucaena is reviewed, and revision proposed to 10 species. All species were studied and collected in the field during three expeditions in Latin America between 1967 and 1978. Keys and description are provided for the family Mimosaceae, the genus Leucaena, and the 10 recognized species - L. collinsii, L. diversifolia, L. esculenta, L.lanceolata, L. leucocepahala, L. macrophylla, L. pulverulenta, L. retusa, L. shannoni, and L. trichodes. Synonyms are suggested for 42 additional taxa.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96006

Preliminary trials with high yielding varieties of Leucaena leucocephala


Lohani, DN
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 11

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala is a high quality legume of the tropics and several fast growing strains give high yield of forage and wood. Several strains of fast growing leucaena were obtained in 1976-77 and tried in different locations in Univeristy of the Philippines both in plains and hills. The experience gained from the trials is described. Varieties K8, and Fiji have shown good growth in saline-alkaline soils and varieties K8, and K29 on other areas in the plains.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96008

Leucaena: a good nurse crop


Beage, MD
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 13

Abstract:
A planting system using leucaena as a nurse crop for other tree species is described. Preliminary data on the advantages of such system is given.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96009

Top corn yield with ipil-ipil as fertilizer


Benge, MD
Abstract on Leucaena;Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 13

Abstract:
This paper notes an experiment in 1953 done in the Alabang Soil Conservation Project, Alabang, Rizal on the effect of plowing under ipil-ipil herbage into a corn field. For every ton of fresh herbage incorporated into the soil, 12.38 kg of nitrogen were added to the soil. Consequently, 44.4 cavans of shelled corn was harvested from a hectare fertilized with ipil-ipil as against 12.2 cavans from the control lot.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96001

Leucaena cytogenetics in relation to the breeding of low mimosine lines


Gonzales, V; Brewbaker, JL; Hamill, DE
Abstract on Leucaena;Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p.8

Abstract:
Cytological and biochemical studies were conducted in the genus Leucaena in relation to the breeding of low mimosine, high yielding forage types of L. leucocephala (Lamk.) de Wit. Meiotic and mitotic chromosomes were studied in the following species; L. leucocephala and L. pulverulenta (Schlecht) Benth. (2N=56); L. trichodes Benth; L. lanceolata (S.Wats.). L. stenocarpa (Urban), accesions designated "L. buitenzorg" (2N=52) and "L. esculenta" (@n=104).|All species of leucaena hybridized freely, insofar as they were tested. The 80 chromosome hybrids of L.pulverulenta x leucocephala were grown and studied in detail. Seed recovery and yields of these hybrids were high, despite meiotic chromosome pairing of 26 bvalents and 28 univalents. F2 plant ranged widely in chromosome numbers.|Assays for the toxic alkaloid, mimosine were conducted on F1, F2 and backcross progenies from a cross of high x low mimosine strains of L. leucocephala. Despite the apparent polyploidy of the species, wide variations were observed in mimosine contents of the segregating generations, enabling the selection of plants with less than 30% of the normal mimosine values (ca. 4% dry weight) of tropical forage strains. The correlation between mimosine and protein contents for related F2 segregants from high x low mimosine crosses was not significant (r=.60).

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96002

A study of variation, hybridization and the F1 generation of interstrain crosses on Leucaena glauca


Gray, SG
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 8

Abstract:
A study of variation in Leucaena glauca has shown that the species comprises a number of strains which are fairly uniform and stable, although not completely so.|Strains may be grouped into three types on the basis of growth habit, vegetative vigour, and time of flowering.|L. glauca is essentially autogamous but with a small amount of outcrossing. Methods of emasculation and cross-pollination have been developed and tested.|The F1 generation of inter-strain crosses has been studied. Growth hsbit differences have a genetic basis, tallness being dominant over shortness; modifying factors also appear to be involved. Stem-tip pubescense is inherited as a single recessive;this character should be useful as a genetic marker. Petiole pigmentation appears to be fairly simply inherited, with one or two gene pairs, but variation of expressivity makes the character somewhat difficult to define.|Quantitative character differences have been studied using Duncan's multiple range tests for the comparison of means. This means for several quantitative measurements in the F1 generation tend in a majority of instances to approximate those in the parent line with a higher value indicating dominance as the major factor in controlling size inheritance.|Some instances if F1 means exceeding those of the higher parent indicate that heterosis also occurs. Much, but not all, of the quantitative variation found in interstrain crosses should therefore, be fixable.|There are indications that strains of L. glauca possess differences in combining ability.|The principal objectives of breeding work L. glauca are to obtain growth habit readily compatible with intense grazing by cattle, and to obtain the maximum forage yielding ability. Breeding in this species should follow pedigree culture methods, raising large F2 populations in order to secure rare combinations of multiple genes.|L. glauca offers some advantages as a subject for the study of quantitative inheritence, particularly in relation to the inheritence of forage yielding ability.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96007

Rooting cuttings and grafting giant Leucocephala on Pterocarpus indicus


Zabal, NQ
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 11

Abstract:
Vegetative propagation by means of rooted cuttings and grafting of giant ipil-ipil, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit and narra, Pterocarpus indicus Willd., was studied. Cuttings of giant ipil-ipil 40 cm and 1.5 to 1.99 cm in diameter developed more roots and vigorous shoots than the smaller and bigger sizes. About 80% of narra cuttings having uniform size developed roots, shoots and grew. These leguminous species were satisfactorily grafted using the cleft method. Grafting successes obtained were 80% and 60% in narra and in giant ipil-ipil, respectively.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96012

The response of Tangonan abaca to varying spacing of ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca L.) shade trees


Colebrar, FR; Gavarra, MR
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 13

Abstract:
The results show that dense shading with ipil-ipil at a distance of 2.5 m x 2.5 m and 5.0 m x 5.0m, adversely affected suckering, total weight per hectare, total harvestable stalks per hectare and ultimatley the yield of shaded Tangonan abaca.|Plant height, girth measurement and records on mosaic infection did not differ much among treatments compared. Shade spacing at 7.5 m x 7.5 cm did not affect yield and other growth parameters.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96003

Inheritence of growth habit and quantitative characters in intervarietal crosses in Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk.) de Wit Aust.


Gray, SG
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 9

Abstract:
Five varieties of Leucaena leucocephala covering the range of variation in growth habit in this species were crossed in all combinations.|Measurements were made on leaf size, stem length, and flowering data on F1 populations of seven crosses raised in a spaced-plant trial. Genotypic effects were significant for each character. Most of the F1 means approximated those of the higher percent. The assymetrical distribution of the F1 means about the mid-parent point indicated that there was some heterosis, in addition to additive effects.|Segregation ratios in F2 and F3 populations indicate that branching habit is controlled by two pairs of disomically inherited genes. One of these controls erect growth with lax branching vs. bushy growth with denser branching. The other controls absence vs. presence of strong basal branching.|Measurement of stem length and stem number were made on F2 populations of several crosses. These character appeared to be controlled by multiple genes affecting vegetative vigour. These genes are transmitted independently of the genes controlling branching habit.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96004

General and specific combining ability in varieties of Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk.) de Wit. Aust


Gray, SG
Abstract on Leucaena;Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 9

Abstract:
A diallel series on intervarietal crosses in Leucaena leucocephala was used to estimate general and specific combining ability for length of main stem and stem number in fur varieties of contrasting growth habits. Reciprocals were not included.|Significant differences were found between varieties for variation due to general combining ability, for both characters, and for variation due to specific combining ability for length of main stem, but not for stem number. Peru and Guatemala were superior to Hawaii and El Salvador in general combining ability for length of main stem, but not for stem number. Peru and Hawaii superior to El Salvador and Guatemala in general combing ability for stem number. Peru and El Slavador had much higher specific combining ability variances for length of main stem than GUatemala and Hawaii.|An evaluation of parents and crosses based on F1 performance and the estimates of combining ability has been made, and compared with the subsequent performance of the crosses in later generations.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96005

General and specific combining ability in varieties of Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit Aust.


Gray, SG
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 9-10

Abstract:
An intervarietal cross in Leucaena leucocephala between the contrasting varieties Bald Hills and Guatemala was studied in an experiment incorporating the two parental varieties, and F2 population, and 37 F3 families. Characters examined were length of main and stem number.|Phenotypic variances for the F2 population were low in relation to the estimated non-genetic variance. In length of main stem 3 months after planting, genetic variance accounted for 21.0% of the total variance, and partition of variation showed the presence of strong non-genetic and additive genetic components and absence of any non-additive genetic component.|In length of main stem at the end of the season and in stem number, no genetic variance could be demonstrated. Polysomic inheritance is suggested as an explanation of this restricted segregation.|Differences between F3 family means were highly significant in each of the characters measured.|Length of mains stem and stem number were highly correlated (r=0.5 and 0.7), which suggests that these characters are not inherited independently but are both related to plant vigour.|Application to plant breeding are discussed.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96011

Ipil-ipil can control hagonoy infestation


Ciesielski, B; Benge, MD
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 13

Abstract:
The paper notes the results of the experiment done at the Bureau of Animal Industry where leucaena was planted in areas where hagonoy (Chromolaena odorata) was cut to the ground. Hagonoy growing uner ipil-ipil produces 80 to 90% less seeds than those in the open. This is due to a great reduction in number of flowers and in number of flowering branches.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96013

A possible combination crop for marginal rainfed rice terraces


Curran, HM, Jr.
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 14

Abstract:
A scheme of growing arboreal-type leucaenas on marginal rice terraces so that the leucaena leaves cold be used to fertilize the land is discussed.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96014

Ipil-ipil: new promising fertilizer


Flores, LB
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 14

Abstract:
This article notes the experiment of Guevarra and Brewbaker on the use of ipil-ipil as fertilizer when intercropped with corn.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96015

Management of Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit for maximum yield and nitrogen contribution to intercropped corn


Guevarra, AD
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 14-15

Abstract:
The performance of the Hawaiian type (K341) of L.leucocephala (Lamk.) de Wit as compared with that of a Salvador type (K8) in field experiments at North Kohala, Hawaii (130 m elevation, Typic Ustropepts). In a second experiment, leucaena (K8) was intercropped with corn (H610) to study their relative yields and the nitrogen contribution of leucaena to intercropped corn.|Spacing, cutting regimes and climatic factors significantly affected the morphological development and yield of both varieties. Growth rate and yields were higher during periods of high solar radiation and night temperature values. The flowering of K341 was enhanced at lower planting densities. K341 flowered earlier and had more branches than K8. The total annual dry matter yields (stem and leaves) were 17.8 t/ha for K341 and 15.2 t/ha for K8. Dense planting (15cm x 50 cm) and cutting at approximately 1m height at harvest were found to be desirable management practices. Nitrogen and mimosine contents of the forage fraction and stem on a dry weight basis were similar in all treatments. Due to differences in dry matter yields, K341 produced nearly 600kg/N/ha/yr while K8 produced about 500 kg N/ha/yr.|When leucaena was intercropped with corn, it made excellent growth, with yields on a unit area basis comparable to the monocropping experiment. In the first corn crop, the yields of corn grain and stover were not influenced by the application of either urea or leucaena forage due to residual soil nitrogen from a previous experiment. In the second crop of corn, there was a significant response to both urea and leucaena forage production. Yields of corn seedlings, grain and stover in the corn-leucaena intercrop were generally higher than in the check. Grain yields were higher when leucaena was cut at early stage of corn than at later stage pf growth because in the latter, the nitrogencould not be effectively utilized by the corn. The efficiency of leucaena in supplying nitrogen to corn was about 38% that of urea, based on the grain yield.|Corn spacing accounted for most of the variation in yield in the leucaena treatments (r2=82%), but there was an improvement in the coefficient of determination when leucaena-N data were added to the spaing data (R2=88%).|The total fresh forage production in corn-leucaena intercrop and in corn alone fertilized with 75 kg N/ha from urea was comparable at 24 t/ha. This yield was twice the fresh forage yield of corn under zero nitrogen plot.|Leucaena contributed significantly to reducing the nitrogen requirement of the intercropped corn. In addition to nitrogen, leucaena forage undoubtedly contributed other nutrients to corn. Forage nutrient values increased considerably when leucaena was mixed with the corn.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96016

Control of cogon with the use of ipil-ipil [Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth]


Mejia, AS; Lalog, NP; Tamolang, FN
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute;Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 15

Abstract:
Cogon covers about 5 million hectares of land. To insure the control or reclamation of some portions of this cogon land, systematic and practical planting methods with the use of ipil-ipil and other species have been studied and developed.|There were established at elevation 104-133 meters above sea level four grassland quarter-hectarage plots on a northern aspects in the Makiling National Park, which is located at 14 degree 9' 30" north latitude, 121 degree 11' east longitude, about 62 kilometers south of the city of Manila. Of the four quarter-hectare plots planted to ipil-ipil cuttings with four wild seedlings around each, 30 cm apart, the second plot was found to be the best.|This papers covers the results of the first trials of planting, which will be continued and repeated before attempting to use the method in large-scale planting.|Cost of operation for each experimental method is given.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96017

Ipil-ipil as a reclamation crop in sitio Paliparan, Makiling national park


Seguerra, G
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 15

Abstract:
The reclamation work by the use of ipil-ipil in Paliparan is successful. Reclamation of grassland by ipil-ipil is economical. The economic value of ipil-ipil in Paliparan was firewood, fence post, charcoal is a blessing to the adjacent community more than what the cogon area can ever do. The most efficient and economical method of broadcasting fresh seed before rainy season and allowing natural reforestation below provided fire lines are constructed. Ipil-ipil as reclamation crop and a nurse tree is the best so far known and as a soil improver, firewood and chracoal, it competes favorably with the standard species. However, it is a nuisance to farmers who intent to plot their land, hence it should be planted solely on lands intended for ipil-ipil production where plowing is not necessary.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96018

Preliminary study on the possibility of using ipil-ipil [Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth] for paper pulp by semichemical process with soda open vessel


Almonte, BD
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 17

Abstract:
Pulp yields varying from 70.6 - 81.8% were obtained from ipil-ipil of various ages under different treatment conditions by the semichemical process with soda in open vessel. The mean fiber length was found to be 1.18 mm making this species quite suitable for commercial paper manufacture, especially in combination with longer-fibered materials such as bamboo.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96019

Firewood production: a profitable project


Anon
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 17

Abstract:
Establishment of an ipil-ipil (Philippine variety) plantation is described. The method of harvesting for fuelwood is also described.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96020

Hot and cold bath treatment of ipil-ipil posts


Cortes, RT; Capili, ET
Abstract on Leucaena; Forset Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 17

Abstract:
This paper discusses the results of 4 hr "hot (178 degree F - 204 degree F) and 13 hr cold bath (120 degree F) treatment" of air seasoned ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth) fence posts with a 50-50 mixture of creosote and water-gas-tar preservatives. Using posts with average dimensions of 3.31 inches diameter and 12.51 ft. long, and 0.71 inch sapwood, the authors found that the entire sapwood was penetrated but the heartwood was not. The average absorption per cubic foot is 7.20 lb.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96021

Lumber production from giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala)


Ella, AC
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 17

Abstract:
Logs used in the study came from 5-and-7-year old Leucaena plantations having an average diameter of 20 cm and 24 cm respectively. Lumber recoveries obtained were 55.02% for 5-year old tree, based on 1.0191 cu m input and 61.68% for 7-year old trees, based on 0.3990 cu m log volume. Breakdown of waste incurred are as follows: for 5-year old trees, slabs, 8.28%;sawdust, 12.50%; edgings, 14.20%;7-year old trees, slabs 13.46%;sawdust, 12.6%; edgings,12.23%. An average aof 5 boards of 2.54 cm thickness and average diameter of 20 cm were produced from a 5-year old tree and from a 7-year old tree, 7 boards of 24 cm diameter were obtained.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96022

Some aspects of a feasibility study in fuelwood and charcoal production from ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lmk.) de Wit


Estudillo, CP; Villanueva, EP; Bawagan, PV
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 18

Abstract:
This report presents a ten-year scheme of the financing and management of an ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lmk.) De Wit.] plantation for an integrated fuelwood and charcoal industry.|Initially, the success of the project depends on the selection of the plantation site, methods of planting, protection of the growing plant, and general administration. Market prospects for fuelwood and charcoal are discussed briefly in this report. Total investment required for different plantation areas and the prospective percentage returns on investment are estimated.|The operational requirements for charcoal making are estimated on the apparent yield of marketable fuelwood. Charcoal making is consolidated into a battery unit for continous operation. Each battery consist of six 5-cord kilns which approximately produce 1.8 tons of marketable charcoal lumps daily (excluding Sunday). An experienced crew of three men can continously operate the battery.|The projected investments range from P527,163 for a 250-ha plantation to P3,165,433 for a 2,500-ha plantation. The 10-year operation is divided into two periods: financing and promotional. The financing period which covers the 5 consecutive years wherein the groundwork of the project is undertaken is best characterized by deficit spending. The 5 subsequent years, covering the promotional period of the products, may start with a modest 3% returns on investment on the sixth year, with the cumulative profits tending to rise steadily to as high as 140% on the tenth operational year.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96023

Comparison of the financial returns between kaingin agriculture (rice, coffee, banana production) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca L. Benth) forewood production


Francia, GP, Jr
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 18

Abstract:
The study deals with the determination of the soil rent values when "kaingin" land is used for rice, banana, coffee and ipil-ipil production. From the results, it was concluded that given the same quality of land area, ipil-ipil production gives the highest land value, followed by banana production, then coffee production and the lowest is upland rice production. The data analyzed was obtained from costs and returns of "kaingin" areas within Mt. Makiling, Laguna, Philippines, within 1958 through 1960.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96024

Harvesting and marketing ipil-ipil [Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth.]


Guzman, MG de
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 19

Abstract:
In plantation of the Bureau of Forestry, ipil-ipil is sold according to its stumpage value. Stumpage value is the priec paid by a purchaser for standing ipil-ipil trees t be cut and removed by him from the plantation. This is obtained by getting the difference between the ipil-ipil firewood in the market and the total cost of harvesting and marketing including a profit of 25% on the operation. The 25% allowed for profit is based on current cost of operation and current market price. This method of selling standing ipil-ipil by stumpage is based on the ability of the purchaser to pay.|While the stumpage value of standing ipil-ipil in the plantation is not affected by the fluctuations of prices of forewood in the open market, the profit of the licesee is affected by the corresponding decrease if the cost of the operation. The utlimate consumer of the firewood, however, is the benefactor based on the economic principle that when a commodity can be produced at a low cost, it can be sold at a cheaper price, just sufficent for the enterprise to draw a reasonable profit.|The product must be classified according to quality. There is more heartwood in the butt ends. Fuelwood which contain heartwood commands a high price.|Operation during summer must be in full blast. It is easier to harvest ipil-ipil, beacuse the trails are not muddy.|A big quantity of the product must be stocked for disposition during rainy days when supply is scarce and the price is high.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96025

Penetration of preservatives salts in ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca Linn.) posts by double diffusion treatment


Jaranillo, TT
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 19

Abstract:
Green or ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca Linn.) posts, 6 feet in length and 4 to 5 inches in diameter were treated by standing them upright in a 50-gallon concentrate tank filled almost to the top with 5% sulfate solution for four days, then in 5% "Timber" solution for the same number of days. Treatments were made on posts completely barked, partly barked, and without barking. Three positions of the posts during treatments and in seasoning were studied.|Average retention of salt was measured from hydrometer readings before and after treatments at constant temperature. Penetration was determined by spot tests for copper and boron.|Very slight differences in average retention of the chemicals were noted in the different treatments studied. Absorption of the second chemical used was generally less than the first chemical in all treatments.|Penetrations in completely barked posts with bark. Penetrations in unbarked posts were very irregular, with thin untreated spots. lEss eratic penetration partly barked posts than in unbraked posts were observed.|Retentions and penetrations were considered insatisfactorily in all treatments.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96026

Ipil-ipil: its culture and management-green gold from ipil-ipil


Mendoza, RC
Abstract on Leucaena; Forset Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 21

Abstract:
A short paper describing methods of establishing and management of ipil-ipil for wood or leaf meal purposes. A projected cost and return analyses for these production ventures are presented.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96027

Facts and figures


Mendoza, RC
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 21

Abstract:
Figures in wood production based on experimental results at the UPLB Experiment Station are presented to show the profitability of planting Leucaena for pulp and paper and forewood for home and industrial consumption.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96028

Energy plantations for steam power plants


Semana, JA
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 21

Abstract:
The establishment of energy plantations of giant ipil-ipil and associated wood-fired power plants could assist in solving some of the country's problems in reforestation, foreign exchange conservation and employment. Figures and tables were presented to support this view.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96029

Determining volume of giant ipil-ipil at Canlubang sugar estate


Semana, JA; Lea¤o, PA
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 21

Abstract:
The annual growth increments of the stand of K28 giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lmk.) De Wit] were found to be 25.2 bone-dry tons/ha/yr, or 45.5 m3/ha/yr for the trunks alone and 31.6 bdt/ha/yr for both trunks and branches. This is the highest known growth rate for any plantation species in the Philippines. This 2-yr old stand had a projected volume of 318.7 m3/ha.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96030

A study on the destructive distillation characteristics of ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lmk.) De Wit] wood


Villanueva, EP; Banaag, NF
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 22

Abstract:
Ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lmk.) De Wit] wood as carbonized in an electrically-heated retort, at a temperature range of 400 to 440C. Carbonization conducted at moderate and rapid heating rates indicated distinct effects on the yields of charcoal, pyroligenous liquor, setteled tars, and uncondensible gases. Charcoal quality and the relative percentages of acetic acid, methanol, and soluble tar in the pyroligneous liquor were likewise affected. Calorific determination of ipil-ipil wood charcoal showed an average heating value of 7,472 calories per gram.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96031

A modified method of isolating and determining mimosine from ipil-ipil leaf meal


Alejandro, AL; Goze, C; Balboa, B
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 23

Abstract:
Thin-layer chromatographic separation of mimosine on cellulose microcrystalline-coated plates, after preliminary purification by cation exchange chromatography,provided an improved method of isolating mimosine. Quantitative spectrophotometric determination of mimosine was accomplished with ferric chloride as the chromogenic reagent.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96032

High levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal in growing-finishing pig's ration need ferrous sulfate supplementation


Rivas, ET; Arga¤osa, VG; Lopez, PL
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 23

Abstract:
This is a report on the experiment conducted by Rivas,E.T., V.G. Arga¤osa and P.L. Lopez at the University of the Philippines, Los Baños, College, Philippines to determine the effects of high levels of ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lmk.) De Wit.) leaf meal with and without ferrous sulfate supplementation on the performance of growing-finishing pigs. Three feeding, three levels of ipil-ipil and three levels of ferrous sulfate were used. Highly significant ipil-ipil and ferrous sulfate interaction effects in most production traits in the three feeding periods.|Pigs weighing 15-30 kg when fed 20% ipil-ipil without ferrous sulfate required the longest feeding period to reach the desired weight of about 90kg. However, growing-finishing pigs can be raised using rations containing as much as 20% ipil-ipil leaf meal provided that 0.4% ferrous sulfate is added to the ration. Moreover, pigs weighing 50 kg or heavier can utilize higher levels of ipil-ipil in the ration better than the younger or smaller pigs.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96033

Leucaena glauca Benth for poultry and livestock I. leaf meals with high and low mimosine content in chick rations


Castillo, LS; Aglibut, FB; Gerpacio, AL: Gloria, LS; Gatapia, AR; Resureccion,RS
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 24

Abstract:
Lancaster grades and S.C.W. Leghorn chicks were fed for eight weeks with rations containing ipil-ipil [Leucaena glauca (Linn.) Benth] leaf meal with high (3.36%0 or low (0.32%) mimosine content. Leaf meal of low mimosine content was obtained by soaking and washing the leaf meal three times in 24-hours and drying the leaf meal. Lancaster birds were fed rations containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of both kinds of leaf meals. The S.C. W. Leghorn birds were fed, 0, 10 and 20% of both kinds of leaf meals.|Results show that the Lancaster birds fed the 10-15 and 20% washed leaf meal were significantly heavier than the corresponding lots fed the untreated leaf meal. Those fed the 10% washed leaf meal did not vary significantly from the control lots but those fed 10% untreated meal were significantly smaller. The S.C.W. leghorn birds also averaged 865.0 gm; those at the 10% untreated, 744.2 gm and its corresponding lot fed the washed leaf meal, 796.6 gm. At the 20% untreated level, the average weight was 320.8 gm and its corresponding lot fed the washed leaf meal, 667.7 gm. The S.C.W. Leghorn in the control lot weight 668.8 gm. those in the 10% untreated lot 525.0 gm; those in the 10% washed lot, 618.8gm; those in the 20% untreated 252.3gm; and in its corresponding washed lot, 426.0gm.|Liver iron increased as the levels of leaf meals increased, thus suggesting that iron may not be depressed by mimosine. In all the lots fed the two kinds of leaf meals, more birds have pigmented shanks and skin than those in the control. The degree of feathering was poorer as the level of ipil-ipil increased. However, carotene in the plasma and liver increased in both breeds of chicks as the level of both kinds of leaf meal increased.|Lancaster birds appeared more resistant to mimosine toxicity than S.C.W. Leghorn birds.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96042

The effects of various treatments and additives on the feeding value of ipil-ipil leaf meal in poultry


Labadan, MM
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 27-28

Abstract:
A linear depression in growth was observed when chicks were fed 0, 10, 20, 40% ipil-ipil leaf meal diets. Mortality was very high for the lots fed the 40% ipil-ipil leaf meal diets. The attempts to counteract the growth depression from the high levels of the leaf meal diets by adding structural analogs of mimosine such as tyrosine, pyridoxine and niacin proved successful. There was a significant improvement in growth and feed conversion efficiency when the basal ipil-ipil diets were supplemented with 0.15 and 0.30% FeSO4. Aerobic fementation with rumen juice did not improve the feeding value of the leaf meal for growing chicks. Washing significantly reduces the mimosine content of the leaf meal and supported better growth of chicks.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96035

Comparative vitamin K activity of dehydrated alfalfa and Leucaena leucocephala meal


Chou, ST; Ross, E
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 25

Abstract:
The vitamin K activity of Leucaena leucocephala (L.glauca) and dehydrated alflfa meal were compared using a corn-soybean meal type ration. Expressed in terms of mg. of menadione per kg of supplement, the vitamin K activity for alfalfa and L. leucocephala meals were approximately 106 and 180, respectively.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96036

A comparative study of the influence of the leaves and young shoots of centrosema, ipil and sweet potato as green feed on the growth of the chicks


Dingayan, AB; Fronda, FM
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 25

Abstract:
Of the three green feeds tested, ipil-ipil leaves and young shoots produced the heaviest chicks, followed closely by centrosema. The chicks given sweet potato leaves and young shoots were the smallest. They were thus even inferior to those that received no green feed at all.|The chicks raised most economically were those that received ipil-ipil leaves and young shoots; those that received centrosema leaves and young shoots were nest. The most expensive chicks were those that received sweet potato leaves and young shoots as green feed.|The percentage of mortality was highest in the lot fed with young shoots; the lowest, in the lot fed with ipil-ipil leaves and young shoots.|Either finely cut green leaves and young shoots of ipil-ipil and centrosema are much better than sweet potato leaves and young shoots as green feed for growing chickens.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96037

Ipil-ipil, the "alfalfa of the tropics: it's establishment culture and utilization as a fodder and pasture crop.


Fariñas, EC
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p.26

Abstract:
A set of recommendations are forwarded on the establishment, culture and management of ipil-ipil for fodder and pasture.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96041

The effect of feeding Leucaena leucocephala (Lmk.) De Wit on reproduction in rats


Joshi, HS
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 27

Abstract:
In separate experiments, mature rats were either given a ration containing L.leucocephala leaf meal at 15% or 7.5% level, or closed orally each day with water extract at the leaf meal before and during the breeding period.|At the 15% level, the food intake of the rats was greatly reduced, and they showed general symptoms of inanition. All the females were infertile and the males showed reduced libid and fertility. In the other experiments, the majority of females conceived, but on autopsy it was observed that they had a significantly larger proportion of fetuses dead and undergoing resorption as compared with those of the control group.|The results suggested that the toxic material in L. leucocephala, probably mimosine, produced infertility in the rat by reducing the food intake; when food consumption was adequate for reproductive function, the toxic material caused a high incidence of foetal death and resorption.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96038

Leucaena glauca Benth for poultry and livestock protein and energy levels and minerals in minimizing toxic effects of mimosine in chick ration


Gloria, LA; Gerpacio, AL; Aglibut, FB; Castillo, LS
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated) p.26

Abstract:
A three-phase study, the third in a series of experiments involving the utilization of high levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal, was conducted. In the first phase, the average weights of birds fed with different levels of ipil-ipil leaf meals and supplements were observed not to differ significantly from weights of control birds. However, among treated, significant differences were observed, with the heaviest weight found on birds given the 10% ipil-ipil plus 0.5% ferrous sulfate.|In the second phase, only the 10% ipil-ipil level was used. Supplementation of feather, ground or ashed, decreased the bird's weights while supplementation of ferrous sulfate and methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) increased the weights significantly.|Results obtained in the third phase of the study showed increase in weights with increasing levels of protein and coconut oil. The combination of ferrous protein and coconut oil. The combination of ferrous sulfate and MHA as supplement gave the best result in both Vantress X New Hampshire and S.C.W. Leghorn. Response of the two breeds to other supplements used, however, did not follow the same trend.|It was concluded that the increase of protein and energy level with ferrous sulfate and MHA supplementation appreciably affect the toxicity of ipil-ipil leaf meal at 10% level.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96039

Leucaena leucocephala as a feed for dairy cows: direct effect on reproduction and redisual effect on the calf and lactation


Hamilton, RI; Donaldson, LE; Lambourne, LJ
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 26

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala was given for periods of 30 days to 14 months to non-lactating dairy cows in all stages of the reproductive cycle. Similar cows were fed on lucerne for comparison.|Leucaena did not affect oestrous cycle length, conception rate, or gestation length. Feeding leucaena to heifers pre partum did not affect the mean yield and composition of milk over the first 9 weeks of lactation when a normal milking ration was used pot partum but the shape of the lactation curve was slightly flattened. Some wild incoordination and nervous symptoms occurred briefly during gestation in some cows fed on leucaena. Mild depilation was seen in several cows; quite extensive depilation in one.|Calves from cows fed on leucaena had a significantly lower mean birth weight (19.6 kg) than control calves (25.8 kg) and one cow fed on leucaena had a still born calf. Calf thyroid galnds were enlarged and plasma protein-bound iodine levels elevated, but thyroid gland histology was normal. Basal methabolic rates and growth rates of the calves were the same in the two groups.

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Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96040

Reaction of sheep to the consumption of Leucaena glauca Benth. and to its toxic principle mimosine


Hegarty, MP; Schinckel, PG; Courts, RD
Abstract on Leucaena;Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 27

Abstract:
Sheep on a sole diet of Leucaena glauca Benth. shed their fleece. The amino acid mimosine has been shown to be depilatory agent. The depilatory effect of L. glauca was influenced by level and method of feeding.|Small quantities of mimosine were excreted by sheep consuming L. glauca but the major metabolite in the urine was identified as 3, 4-dihydroxypyridine (DHP). It was established from the results of intravenous, intra-abomasal, and intraruminal administration of mimosine that sheep cannot detoxicate mimosine after absorption, but extensive degradation of mimosine to DHP takes place in the rumen.|The absence of toxic symptoms in a sheep conditioned to L. glauca appeared to be due to increased detoxification in the rumen rather than to the development of an adaptive tolerance after absorption.|The histological changes in the skin are decribed, and reasons for conflicting reports on the toxicity of L. glauca are discussed.|A simple method for the isolation of mimosine from the seed of L. glauca is described in the appendix.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96043

The effects of feeding high levels of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal on comb and testes growth of single comb white leghorn cockerels


Labadan, MM; Abilay, TA; Alejar, AS; Pungtilan, VS
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 28

Abstract:
Eight-week old cockerels were fed, 0, 10, 20 and 30% ipil-ipil leaf meal diets for eight weeks. In addition, one group was fed a control diet (0% ipil-ipil) paired to the consumption of the group fed the 20% ipil-ipil diet.|Results indicate that a factor in ipil-ipil leaf meal, probably mimosine, inhibits development of the testes and comb of cockerels. The depression in testes and comb growth may not always be reflected in a depression of live body weight.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96044

Feedlot fattening of cattle and goats with ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaves and molasses urea


Linggodyiwo
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 28

Abstract:
Digestion trials involving cattle and goats were conducted to determine the digestibilities of corn/sorghum stover molasses silage plus concentrate, ipil-ipil (Peruvian) plus molasses-urea and ipil-ipil plus concentrate. The nitrogen balance was also determined.|Results showed that cattle were slightly more efficient than goats in utilizing nutrients in all the three treatments. However, no significant differences in digestion coefficients of nutrients for both species were found.|Nitrogen retention was slightly higher in animals fed with ipil-ipil leaves plus molasses-urea, but it was accompanied by slightly smaller changes in weight compared with those obtained with the other two treatments.|In the feedlot fattening, the ipil-ipil and molasses-urea ration showed a lower average daily gain and feed efficiency compared to ipil-ipil plus concentrate but better over silage plus concentrate. This shows that ipil-ipil can provide part of the dietary protein requirement of goat and cattle.|Animals fed with ipil-ipil plus concentrate gained the most. In goats, the average daily weight gain was 80 gm whereas in cattle, it was 1.12 kg.|In both species, feed efficiency was best for those fed with ipil-ipil concentrate. However, for more practical feedlot fattening of cattle, ipil-ipil plus molasses and 3% urea may hold some promise. Animals fed with this ration gained 0.73 kg per day and had a feed efficiency of 6.89 kg dry matter per kilogram gained. Cattle are 50% more efficient than goats with ipil-ipil.|Goats fed with the native (Philippine) variety of ipil-ipil suffered from alopecia, a condition that disappeared when fed with Peruvian variety.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96045

The influence of 5 and 10% levels of ipil-ipil (L.glauca) leaf meal in the college all mash ration for chicks


Molina, DG
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 30

Abstract:
The addition of ipil-ipil leaf meal to the College all-mash growing ration greatly improved the feeding value of the basal feed of the two levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal using the 5% level was found to be better.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96046

Supplemental feeding of tilapia mossambica


Pantastico, JB; Baldia, JP
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; p. 31

Abstract:
T.mossambica were grown to marketable size in floating cages in Laguna de Bay at a stocking density of 75/m2. Those given supplemental Feed 1 (rice bran: ipil-ipil: fish meal, 60:20:20) showed significantly faster growth than those fed with supplemental Feed 2 (chopped snails: rice bran, 30:70). Control, without supplemental feeding, showing slower growth rates as compared to the supplement-fed lots. A more efficient feed conversion ratio was obtained for Feed 1 (4:1) as compared to Feed 2(6:1).|Laboratory experiments in aquaria showed the feasibility of improving the growth of tilapia with ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal alone. Varying levels of ipil-ipil, given at 3, 6 and 9% of the body weight, increased the body weight to .75 gm, 1.68 gm and 2.94 gm, respectively. Moreover, the crude protein content of tilapia increased proporationately with increasing levels of ipil-ipil leaf meal.|The significance of the above results in the light of establishing a tilapia lake farming industry and its effect on the improved nutrition of the people were discussed.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96047

The influence of 5 and 10 parts ipil-ipil leaf meal in the college laying ration


Sandoval, JR
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 31

Abstract:
The addition of ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca Linn.) leaf meal in the College all-mash ration did not increase egg production, but it promoted growth. Incresed ipil-ipil leaf meal intensified the color of the yolk but had no effect on the weight of the eggs. In general, no advantage can be derived from adding ipil-ipil leaf meal to the College laying ration.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96051

Giant ipil-ipil promising source of fertilizer feed and energy for the Philippines


Brewbaker, JL
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 35

Abstract:
The paper discusses the various possible uses of ipil-ipil as fertilizer, for erosion control, as feed and for energy production and reforestation. Some tips on cultural management for forage and seed treatment are also given.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96048

Effect of two levels of dry ipil-ipil leaves on growth performance and carcass characteristics of bulls


Sevilla, CC; Perez, CB, Jr; Gatmaitan, OM; Ibarra, PI
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 32

Abstract:
Twelve grade Zebu bulls, approximately 1-1/2 years old, were placed on a 126-day feedlot performance trial to evaluate the effects of two levels (40% and 90%) of ipil-ipil in rice straw based ration. A control ration consisted of 60% straw and 40% concentrate.|There were no significant effects on liveweight gains, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of test animals fed two levels of ipil-ipil leaves. Average daily gain for all animals ranged from 0.25 to 0.64 kg with an over-all mean of 0.42 kg. Feed conversion efficiency averaged 12.5 kg feed per kg liveweight gain with values ranging from 16.4 to 9.6. The average total daily air-dry feed intake was 5.05 kg.|Of the several carcass parameters studied, hot and chilled carcass weight were significantly heavier (P<.05) for bulls on control ration than those on rations with ipil-ipil leaves. On the other hand bulls fed ration with 90% ipil-ipil and 10% rice straw had heavier hot and chilled carcass weight than those fed ration with 40% ipil-ipil and 60% rice straw. Dressing percentage of bulls on 60% rice straw and 40% ipil-ipil ration was significantly lower (P.05) compared to the other two treatments.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96049

The use of ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk) de Wit] in the diets of laying chickens and laying quail


Vohra, P; Herrick, RB; Wilson, WO; Siopes, TD
Abstract on Leucaena;Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 33

Abstract:
No significant reductions in feed consumption, gonadal weights and egg production of male and laying quails fed with diets containing up to 20% ipil-ipil. In laying chickens, body weights, egg production, and gonadal weights were not influenced by the incorporation of ipil-ipil up to a level of 20% in the diet at an ambient temperature of 22.2 C. However, a significant reduction in egg production was observed in chickens maintained at an ambient temperature of 10C when fed with diets containing 20% ipil. Mimosine content in ipil-ipil is probably highly variable and some samples may be incorporated in poultry diets at level of 20% without any serious economic difficulty.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96050

Bayani [giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala)] a source of fertilizer, feed and energy for the Philippines


Benge, MG; Curran, H
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 35

Abstract:
This is an excellent review of the then available information on ipil-ipil that includes results of scientific studies and empirical observation but are considered pertinent to present economic development. Forty-two papers are reviewed on the various uses of ipl-ipil such as forage and feed, fertilizer and wood production. Existing production technology and approximate costs are described.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96052

The woody legume, Leucaena: promising source of feed, fertilizer and fuel in the tropics


Brewbaker, JL
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); pp. 35-36

Abstract:
This paper includes notes on he origin and description of the genus Leucaena. It deals more on Leucaena leucocephala, its habit variation, chromosome number breeding habit and its possible uses as food, feed fertilizer, energy source and erosion control.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96053

Dissemination and utilization of information on giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (lamk) de Wit] in the Batangas greenign movement


Bueno, PB
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 36

Abstract:
An information dissemination and utilization strategy model employed in the Batangas Greening Movement was formulated and is presented here.|This model closely corresponds to the problem-solving strategy of dissemination and utilization (Havelock, 1971) of innovation. The provincial government of Batangas, with assistance from the National Greening Movement, played a very significant role in the dessimination of information and the use of giant ipil-ipil in Batangas. Interpersonal and group communication had a major part in diffusion of information on giant ipil-ipil;mass media played a very minor role.|Recommendations to ploicy-makers and implementors are forwarded.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96055

There's money in ipil-ipil


Lambert, LO
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 36

Abstract:
This paper encourages the production of ipil-ipil seeds due to their high price. It emphasizes the need to have genetically pure and highly viable seeds. A few tips on how to establish and maintain seed production and how to ahrvest seeds are given.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96054

Communication and socio-economic factors in the tree planting campaign of Batangas


Bueno, PB
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p.36

Abstract:
Focus of the study was the campaign to plant giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) trees in Batangas province. The respondents were found to have an average knowledge of the benfits, adeqaute knowledge of the desirable characteristics and uses of the giant ipil-ipil, a relatively low knowledge of the measures required for successful reforestation, and a minimal knowledge of the cultural requirements and technical aspects of the giant ipil-ipil. The planters tended to associate their perceptions of the benefits with the products of the giant ipil-ipil tree.|Major social influence process in the adoption of the giant ipil-ipil were identification, particularly with the provincial governor, and internalization. Very few said they were enforced to plant. Almost all had a favorable attitude toward tree planting. Educational attainment was significantly related to some variables like knowledge level of reforestation measures, knowledge level of reforestation benefits, and manner of acquiring initial information.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96056

Giant ipil-ipil: the marvelous tree


Reyes, IE
Abstract on Leucaena; Forest Research Institute Reference Series No. 8; Forest Research Institute; Ministry of Natural Resources; Halos, HC (ed.); College, Laguna, Philippines; (undated); p. 37

Abstract:
This paper expounds on the economic feasibility of growing ipil-ipil for various uses.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96083

Bufo marinus meal with Leucaena leucocephala leafy meal as feed for tilapia milotica


Toledo, CF
Ilocos Research Abstracts 1986-1987; Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte; 1987; Dy, MEY (ed); Ilocos Norte; Philippines; p. 58

Abstract:
The study sought to determine the effects of three feeding levels of the home-made feed formula consisting of toad (Bufo marinus) mean mixed with ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal of the growth, survival, feed conversion rate, and production output of Tilapia milotica. The feeding level treatments were: 3% of fish biomass, 5% of fish biomass and 10% of fish biomass.|Findings showed that a feeding rate of 5% of fish biomass resulted in faster growth rate and higher production output of T. milotica. However, the 3% feeding rate gave the highest coversion rate, followed very closely by the 5% feeding level. The survival rate of T. milotica in all the experimental tanks was 100%.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96185

Palatability of new Leucaenas to sheep


Acasio, RN; Castillo, AC; Victorio, EE
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '98; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1999; 120p.; Joven, JEA (ed); p.80

Abstract:
The successful and nationwide use of ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) was greatly attributed to its high palatability to livestock. Recent developments proved that the genus Leucaena leucocephala consist of large number of other species. Acasio, Castillo, and Victorio (DA-BAI) conducted a cafeteria style feeding trial involving 19 accessions of ipil-ipil to establish the palatibility of these new species to sheep.|Found very palatable to sheep were:Taramba K636;Cunningham;Peru(Alabang);Leucaena hybrid KX2 F1 (l.pallida K748 x l.leucocephala K636);KX2 F1 (l.pallida K376 x l.leucocephala K636);L.collinsii collinsii. Accessions that ranked high in dry matter intake were also the species most frequently grazed. KX2 hybrid was shown enormous promise agronomically as it has broad environmental adaptation, high edible dry matter yields, and psyllids resistance. This species along with L. collinsii, has a high potential as fodder tree legume. Low palatability of L. macrophylla nelsonee was due to its pungent odor.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96160

Improved tree plantation estbalishment technologies in Eastern Visayas


Nasayao, E; Germano, E
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Highlights '97; PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 1998; 167p.; Malicsi, LC and Joven, JEA (eds); pp. 100-101

Abstract:
Nasayao and Germano (DENR-ERDS-Region VIII; ViSCA; UPLB) established tree plantation trials technologies related to increasing productivity of planted forest trees.|The overall growth performance of Asutralian and local species from different provenances were measured after 15 months.|There were 11 outstanding species and provenances. These were Acacia auriculiformis (16152, 17961, 18218). A. leptocarpa (18404,18079), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (18604, 17297, 18709), L. leucocephala, P. indicus and Swietenia macorphylla. Other species/provenances which showed good potential for agroforestation were: A. mangium (18212, 17945, 16938), E. deglupta (18706, 15615), Casuarina cunninghamiana (18007, 13516), A. aulacocarpa (17628,18358), and E. teretocornis (13418, 16349, 18603).|The improved cultural management tehnologies applied were: fumigation of germination medium, fertilizer application to the potting mix, appropriate pregermination treatments, inoculation of seedlings using Rhizobium amd Mycorrhiza, application of complete fertilizer and muriate of potash to the outplanted seedlings, application of chemicals to control pests and diseases (powdery mildew, leafroller, stemborer and others). Weeding, brushing and replanting were done as neccessary.

Availability :
Crops Research Division, Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development




NO. 96233

Wood anatomy of three strains of giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit]


Maruzzo, MM; America, WM
FORPRIDE Digest 10 (1&2): 16-27 (1981)

Abstract:
Two trees each of three strains of giant ipil-ipil [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit], viz., K-8, K-28 and K-67, were used in this study. Anatomical descriptions, including some general characteristics and properties of the wood were based on disc samples taken at diameter breast height (dbh).|Observatiobs indicated the difficulty of separating the three strains. They have common gross and minute wood features. Only minor differences were found in the number of radial spore multiples and in the numerical values of vessel members, and height of multiseriate rays. These findings proved the validity of their taxonomic placement into strains instead of three distinct species.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96249

Direct seeding studies of ipil-ipil (Leucaena latissiliqua Gillis)


Guzman, RZ; Zabala, NQ
Pterocarpus 6 (1): 71-82 (1991)

Abstract:
Seven methods of site preparation on open grasslands for direct seeding of phosphorus-lime-coated and uncoated giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena latissiliqua Gillis) seeds were tested. Results showed that (a) partial reduction of the grass vegetation and cultivation of the soil, i.e. strip clearing and spot clearing significantly improved the growth and survival of seedlings from both the phosphorus-lime-coated and uncoated seeds;(b)complete removal of the grass vegetation, even when accompanied by cultivation of the soil;and (c) coating of ipil-ipil seeds with phosphorus fertilizer and lime did not significantly affect germination, growth and survival of seedlings.|The broadcast and dibble methods of direct seeding giant ipil-ipil seeds at four levels of seeing giant ipil-ipil seeds was significantly better than the broadcast method in terms of germination, growth and survival of seedlings. The germination rate of the dibble method averaged 34.2 percent and for the broadcast method 12 percent. The dibble method gave a higher cumulative height growth of seedlings at 16.0 cm., while the broadcast method gave only 13.9 cm. On seeding survival, the dibble method averaged 30.7 percent, whereas the broadcast method averaged only 7.4 percent. Results also indicated that there was no significant difference among the four seeding rates used in terms of germination, growth and survival of seedlings.

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 96352

Fuelwood production


Arciaga, C
Sustainable Livelihood Options: An information Kit, Upland Ecosystems; Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City; Department of Environment and Natural Resources; 1997; pp. 226-233

Abstract:
Fuelwood production is intended to be a supplementary source of income for families of marginal upland farmers and dwellers. Ipil-ipil and kakawate are the best species for fuelwood production. The paper presented the technology on the nursery and plantation establishment, maintenance and protection, and harvesting and transport of products.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 96358

Commercial tree farming


Nasayao, E; Pasion, E; Tagra, MS; Vendiola, E
Sustainable Livelihood Options: An information Kit, Upland Ecosystems; Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City; Department of Environment and Natural Resources; 1997; pp. 315-332

Abstract:
This livelihood option is intended for the benficiaries of Integrated Social Forestry (ISF), Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) program, Forest Land Management Agreement (FLMA) holders of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, indigenous peoples and private landowners.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 15277

Sesbania grandiflora, Gliricidia maculata and Leucaena leucocephala as fodder crops


Sampet, C; Pattaro, V
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 16: 114 (1991)

Abstract:
An experiment to assess yield potential of three fodder legume species was conducted from June 1983 to May 1985 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University. The total edible dry matter (EDM) yield (leaflets plus small twigs) significantly differed among the fodder legume species, but was not affected by the cutting heights. Leucaena leucocephala gave higher two-year total EDM yield (17.39 t/ha) than both Sesbania grandiflora (9.96 t/ha) and Gliricida maculata (9.85 t/ha). However, in the first year period, Sesbania grandiflora gave EDM yield of 7.01 t/ha (averaged over two cutting heights) compared to 6.01 and 4.73 t/ha obtained from Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia maculata, respectively. The forage production of all legumes dropped markedly during the dry season, due to water stress. However, Leucaena leucocephala appeared to have a better growth than the other two legumes under such conditions. Leucaena leucocephala gave lower nutritive value in terms of crude protein (CP), phosphorus (P) content and organic matter digestibility (OMD) than the other two legumes. The average values of CP, P and OMD over two cutting heights and over the year of Leucaena leucocephala were 25.7, 0.24 and 64.5%, respectively compared to 29.1, 0.30 and 70.7% observed on Sesbania grandiflora and 27.8, 0.29 and 73.8% observed on Gliricidia maculata. There was not much difference in ash, crude fibre (CF) and ether extractive (EE) contents among these legumes. The observed values ranged from 7.77-9.90% for ash, 11.64-12.15% for CF and 4.23-9.67% for EE. The great variation in EE content was noted in all three legumes due to growing condition. The EE in the forage appeared to increase markedly during dry seasons.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14103

Psyllid, the serious insect problem on leucaena is yet to be solved
Plai-kaifa krathin-yak panha thi khuan kae khai

Chawanaphong, M
Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawitthaya(Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 11(1): 33-36(1989)

Abstract:
Psyllid(Heterophylla cubana), an insect pest on Leucaena spp., spread from Carribian through Asia and America. Adults and nymphs damage young tip of leucaena. The duration of spreading from November to Febuary. Insect characteristics, spreading and natural predators of psyllids are described.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14552

Use of leucaena leucocephale fot increasing rice yield
Kan phoem phonphalit khao duai pui insi krathin yak

Nammung, C; Rathert, G; Rojanakuson, S; Podisuk, V; Kangwanshirathada, K; Songmuang, P; Kanareugsa, C
Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan wichakan kaset (Agriculture research journal) 7(1-3): 22-26 (1989)

Abstract:
The use of Leucaena leucocephala for increasing rice yield by applied as leaf manure incorporated into the soil 21 days before transplanting. The leucaena was more efficient in increasing rice yield than fertilizer N.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14644

Chemi-thermo-mechanicalpulps from fast growing wood species and agricultural residues
Yua CTMP chak mai to reu lae set phut thang kan kaset

Kiatkrajai, P; devahastin, B; Krisanabamrung, W & Kiatkrajai, M
Department of Forest Products;Faculty of Forestry; Kasetsart University; Bangkok

Rai-ngan khonkhwa wichai (Research Report: Annual Report 1982); Kasetsart University; Bangkok; p124

Abstract:
The pulping yield of thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (CTMP) pulps from 2 year old Leucaena leucocephala was greater than 80%. The wood chips were soaked in water and 1 and 2% NaOH at 80 degree C for 30 min before pulping in a laboratory Asplund defibrator at steaming pressure of 25 psig. The pulp was screened and refined by a PFI mill up to 40,000 rev. The refined fiber was then amde to handsheets and tested according to TAPPI standards. The mechanical properties of handsheets were poor. The breaking length, tear factor and burst factor of the handsheets were lower than those from the pulp for newsprint grade. (Authors' abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14685

Utilization of water soaked leucena leaf meal in crossbred Thai native chicken diets
Kan chai bai krathin chae nam pen ahan kai lukphasom phunmuang Thai

Buaban, R
Department of Animal Science; Nakhon Phanom Agricultural College; Nakhon Phanom

Kan prachum thang wichakan khong maha witthayalai Kasetsart khrangthi 32: botkhatyo (The 32nd Kasetsart University Annual Conference; abstract) 3-5 February 1994; Kasetsart University; Bangkok; p100

Abstract:
0-15% of soaked leucaena leaf meal in chicken diet were studied. Results of the study indicated that increasing level of leucaena leaf meal affected growth rate and feed conversion ratio but feed intake and cost per kg weight gain increased. (Revised author's abstract)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14969

Feeding milking cows with some legume leaves
Kan chai phut trakun thua bang chanit pen ahan khonom

Thamgeratiwong, P; Peungchai, V; Sheevacharoen, U; satayapunt, C; Chompoonit, V & Vorawarn, CN
Kamphaengsaen Research Station; KURDI; Kasetsart University Kamphaengsaen Campus; Nakhon Pathom; Thailand

Witthayasan Kasetsart Sakha Witthayasart [The Kasetsart Journal: Natural Sciences] 23 (3): 220-227 (1989)

Abstract:
The experiment was conducted to investigate the problems of low cost of milk production by feeding milking cows with legume leaves (L. leucocephala). Eight, 50-75% Holstein-Friesuan milking cows were randomly allotted to two treatments according to the change-over design. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) grass and leucaena leaves at the ratio of 2:1 and supplemented with concentrate feed at 2kg/hd/d. 2) grass supplemented with concentrate feed at a kg/2 kg of milk obtained. Feeding trila lasted for 60 days. Roughage intake of animal were 7.3 and 5.3 kg/hd/d (P<0.05), respectively concentrate intake of animals were 1.79 and 3.00 kg/hd/d (P,0.05) feed intake of animals were 9.11 and 8.30 kg/kd/d (P<0.05), respectively. Total feed intake were 2.55 and 2.37 % of body weight (P<0.05), respectively. There were no significant difference (P<0.05) between milk yield, fat content and protein content. Throughout the experiment, the cost per kg of milk were 2.31 and 2.61 baht, respectively.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 15067

Effects of vetiver grass and leucaena for soil erosion control in sugarcane, maize and cassava crop practices


Somchai Anusontpornperm; Winai Supattanakul & Prayuth Kawilaves
Agro-Technology Department; Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Bangkok, Thailand

Symposium on Vetiver: A Miracle Grass; The Chaipattana Foundation, the Mae Fah Luang Foundation and the Royal Development Projects Board; 4-8 February 1996; Chiang Rai; Thailand; p92

Abstract:
Four experiments on the effects of vetiver grass and leucaena in sugarcane, maize and cassava (grown early and at nearly the end of rainy season) crop practices were conducted during 1993-1995 in a farmer's field at Tambon Huai Bong, Amphoe Dan Khun Thot, Changwat Nakhon Ratchasima. The experimental plots were in a soil with sandy loam surface on three, four five and six percent slope respectively. The experimental design of all experiments was randomized completely block with four replications. Each replication consisted of four treatments: one and two-rows of vetiver grass strip, one row of leucaena strip and the control. Results obtained from the experiments revealed no significant difference among treatments in the amount of soil loss due to erosion in the first and second year in sugarcane. On the other hand, in maize, the control treatment showed the highest amount of soil loss with an average of 7.236 ton/ha which was significantly higher than that of the one row of vetiver grass strip treatment in the first year. In the second year, the control still showed the highest amount of soil loss with an average of 16.753 ton/ha. This was highly significant different from all other treatments. For cassava grown in early rainy season, the different treatments did not show any significant difference in the amount of soil loss in the first year. However, in second year the amount of soil loss obtained from the control was 44.107 ton/ha which was about six times higher than that from the other treatments. In another cassava plot grown near the end of rainy season, the data showed no significant difference in the first year, however, in the second year the control gave the highest soil loss with an average of 23.03 ton/ha. This was significantly higher than that of the two-row of vetiver strip treatment. In these experiments it was found that the yields of sugarcane, maize and cassava in different treatments were not significantly different.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15189

Biological value of plant proteins: protein quality and safety of Kra-tin Leucaena leucocephala.


Suphakarn, V; Ngunboonsri, P
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology; Thai Documentation Center Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research; Bangkok; 15: 165-166(1990)

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala is well known as Kra-Tin in Thai. It is normally consumed with Nam-Prik and Khoao-Yam. The study of the protein quality and safety of leucaena in Thailand has never been reported. Thus, it is the purpose of this study to investigate whether leucaena young pod and seeds would have any effect on the protein quality and toxicity Test. The experiment was conducted by standard bioassay. The results suggested that the protein quality of leucaena was very poor and the toxicity test revealed death of animals. This effect was probably due to the toxic material in leucaena. In the context of the study, the authors feel that the consumer should be aware of the toxic effect of leucaena. A proper preparation of leucaena in combination with good quality protein would reduce the risk.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15337

Biological value of plant proteins: protein quality and safety of Kra-tin Leucaena leucocephala.


Suphakarn, V; Ngunboonsri, P
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology. 15: 165-166 (1990)

Abstract:
Leucaena leucocephala is well known as Kra-Tin in Thai. It is normally consumed with Nam-Prik and Khoao-Yam. The study of the protein quality and safety of leucaena in Thailand has never been reported. Thus, it is the purpose of this study to investigate whether leucaena young pod and seeds would have any effect on the protein quality and toxicity Test. The experiment was conducted by standard bioassay. The results suggested that the protein quality of leucaena was very poor and the toxicity test revealed death of animals. This effect was probably due to the toxic material in leucaena. In the context of the study, the authors feel that the consumer should be aware of the toxic effect of leucaena. A proper preparation of leucaena in combination with good quality protein would reduce the risk.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15421

Sesbania grandiflora, Gliricidia maculata and Leucaena leucocephala as fodder crops


Sampet, C; Pattaro, V
Thai Abstracts: Science and Technology 16: 114 (1991)

Abstract:
An experiment to assess yield potential of three fodder legume species was conducted from June 1983 to May 1985 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University. The total edible dry mater (EDM) yield (leaflet plus small twigs) significantly differed among the fodder legume species, but was not affected by the cutting heights. L. leucocephala gave higher two-year total EDM yield (17.39 t/ha) than both S. grandiflora (9.96 t/ha) and G. maculata (9.85 t/ha). However, in the first year period, S. grandiflora gave EDM yield of 7.01 t/ha (averaged over two cutting heights) compared to 6.01 and 4.73 t/ha obtained from L. leucocephala and G. maculata respectively. The forage production of all legumes dropped markedly during the dry season due to water stress. However, L. leucocephala appeared to have a better growth than the other two legumes under such conditions. L. leucocephala gave lower nutritive value in terms of crude protein (CP), phosphorus (P) content and organic matter digestibility (OMD) than the other two legumes. The average values of CP,P and OMD over two cutting heights and over the year of L. leucocephala were 25.7, 0.24 and 64.5 percent respectively compared to 29.1, 0.30 and 70.7 percent observed on S. grandiflora and 27.8, 0.29 and 73.8 percent observed on G. maculata. There was not much difference in ash, crude fibre (CF) and ether extractive (EE) contents among these legumes. The observed values ranged from 7.77-9.90 percent for ash, 11.64-12.15 percent for CF and 4.23-9.67 percent for EE. The great variation in EE content was noted in all three legumes due to growing condition. The EE in the forage appeared to increase markedly during the dry season.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 72737

Leucaena glauca
Cay tao nhon.

Tran Van Chinh; Le Trung Chinh et al
The Hospital of National Medicine; Quang Nam-Da Nang

Cay thuoc nam va cac phuong phap phong chua benh don gian tai nha [Traditional Medicinal Plants and Methods of Preventing and Treating Diseases at home]: 233-235 (1995), Danang

Abstract:
The plant is propagated by seeds. Its seeds are used as medicine to treat a parasite diseases. It leaves are used as fertilizer.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78752

Leucana leaf meal sourse of caroten and minerals for foultry.
Ket qua dung bot la keo dau nuoi ga trung thuong pham va ga giong

Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Dang Thi Tuan; Bui Thi Oanh
Genetics society of Vietnam.

Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham – [Agriculture and food industry] N0 1 – pag. 17-18 (1994).

Abstract:
Leucaena leaf have a lot of vitamins, protein, minevals... So it leaves and young branch can be used to feed poulry. In one kg of dry matter consist of metabolizm energy 2765 Kcal B caroten 220 mg. and saveral kinds of minerals Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn...

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 76984

Leucaena leucocephala L.
Cay keo dau

Ngo Quang De; Nguyen Mong Menh
Ky thuat giong cay rung [Breeding technique of forest trees], Hanoi, Agricultural Publ. house. 1986; p. 115-116.

Abstract:
L. leucocephala distribute in humid tropical regions. The ree demands a high rainfall but can grow in region having a rainfall 400-800 mm and at 700 m alt. It adapts to different soil. The breed seeds are harvested in September-October from standing trees. There are 28,000-30,000 seeds per kg. The new harvested seeds have a high germinating capacity. Handling in dry normal conditions they can be germinated 40-50% (after 1-2 years).

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam