Anacardium occidentale L.
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NO. 50021

Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 2. Edible fruits and nuts


Verheij, EWM (ed); Coronel, RE (ed)
Department of Tropical Crops; Wageningen Agricultural University; Wageningen; the Netherlands

Low-price, paperback edition; Bogor; PROSEA Foundation; 1992; 447 p

Abstract:
This volume testifies to the great wealth and diversity of edible fruits and nuts in South-East Asia. The appreciation of these fruits and nuts is reflected in the many ways they are put to use and their role in cultural traditions. However, they generally yield erratically rather than prolifically. Where low productivity is the root of the problem, there is much to say for a shift in emphasis in research work from the fruit to the tree. Recent developments in South-East Asia suggest that traditional skills can provide the necessary clues for a breakthrough towards much higher yield levels. Among the 120 crops included are sugarapple, cherimoya, cashew, ananas, breadfruit, mango, durian, black and white sapote, mangosteen, avocado, tamarind, langsat, guava, carambola, bilimbi, salak, peach palm, passionfruit, macadamia, pummelo, lychee, longan, rambutan, sapodilla, starapple, canistel, sweet orange, pilinut, loquat, kumquat, bel fruit, galo nut, bignay, ketupa, rambai, gandaria, papaya, grape and strawberry. Brief characteristics of another 270 minor species are included. A total of 382 species producing edible fruits and nuts but with other primary use are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of edible fruits and nuts. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 20688

Strategies and achievements in fruit breeding and selection at MARDI


Chan, YK
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute; Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia

Prosiding Simposium Buah-buahan Kebangsaan [Proceedings of the National Symposium on Fruits], April 8-9, 1986; Serdang, Selangor; MARDI, 1986, p 185-199

Abstract:
The fruit collection and germplasm centres for fruits were established at MARDI to provide breeders with the basic resource, i.e. genetic variation for crop improvement. The accessions in the fruit collection consisted of varieties, cultivars, clones or advanced breeding lines and was started in 1972 at Serdang. The germplasms were collected at random and restricted only to indigenous fruit species, started in 1982 at Kemaman. This was a joint effort with the IBPGR. Characterization and evaluation, important in providing an inventory of the genetic variation, were completed for papaya and banana and partial1y completed for perennial fruits, like durian, mango and cashew nut. In breeding and selection of clonally propagated fruit species, the basic step was to identify and select the 'winners' and subsequently testing them over time and space to establish the repeatabitily (stability) of their good performances. These, winners' were, however, time related, because of the changing consumer preference and industry demands. They will form the base for further improvement of the varieties in terms of increasing yield, developing pest and disease resistance and other requirements demanded by the industry from time to time. For clonally propagated fruits, selection of rootstocks and increasing productivity of durian clonal populations using mixtures of compatible genotypes were also given consideration. For seed propagated fruit species, the breeding and selection methodology for improving open-pollinated species (watermelon) and self-pollinated species (papaya) were included. The achievements of the breeding, programme on the whole were discussed in the light of the development of 'Nanas Johor' pineapple, the 'MARDI Backcross Solo' papaya, new accessions of 'Mas' and 'Rastali' bananas, the 'C11' cashew nut clone, and recommendation of mixtures of durian clones based on compatibility and xenic effects of the pollination.

Availability :
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Serdang, Selangor, 50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; P.O. Box 12301; phone: (60) (3) 894 37 111; fax: (60) (3) 894 83 664




NO. 14436

Efficiency of acryhope in enhancing drought tolerance of crops
Prasitthiphap khong acryhope nai kan phom khwam thon laeng khong phut

Attanan, T; Doungphat, P; Nanakhon, T
Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart Univeristy, Bangkok, Thailand

Witthayasan Kasetsart Sakha Witthayasat [The Kasetsart Journal: Natural Science] 25 (4): 407-413 (1991)

Abstract:
Acryhope was mixed with soil at different rates to grow seed of eucalyptus, neem, para rubber and cashew nut. The results showed that plants with available water and soil aeratiom were improved with acryhope application. After watering stopped, plants could survive longer under acryhope application. Extractable sodium and pH of soils were increased when acryhope was mixed with soils.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14515

Testing of Chaetomium and some plant extracts for controlling fusarium wilt of tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici)
Kan thotsop kan chai san sakat chak ra Chaetomium lae san sakat chak phut bang chanit nai kan khuapkhum chua ra Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici sahet tham hai koet rok hieo khong makhua-thet

Kanokmedhakul, K; Kanokmedhakul, S; Soythong, K
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Warasan Wichai lae Songsoem Wichakan Kaset [Journal of Agricultural Research and Extension] 10 (2): 5- 10 (1993)

Abstract:
Research results showed that extract from star anise (Illicium verum) at 1% concentration could highly inhibited the spore production of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. (99.40%), followed by the fungal extract of Chaetomium cupreum KMIT-N-4320 grown in rice bran and the leaf extract of Cassia fistula, 97.61% and 97.73%, respectively. Meanwhile the extracts of stems and flowers of Cassia javanica inhibited spore production of 90.94% and 94.33%, respectively. Chaetomium extracted with CH2Cl2 and the plant extract from flowers of Cassia siamea inhibited the spore production of 85.14 and 87.33%, respectively. The plant extracts from stem and flowers of Cassia fistula inhibited the spore production of 78.45 and 76.32%, respectively. Tannic acid which was extracted from the pericarps of Anacardium occidentale inhibited 77.98% of spore production. Moreover, the condensed tannin I and II inhibited the spore production of 70.67 and 56.78%, respectively.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 103713

Suitability of tree species to the field condition in Sentani, Irian Jaya
Kesesuaian jenis pohon dengan kondisi lapang di Sentani, Irian Jaya

Hendromono; Wilaida, T; Mutiara, T; Sutisna, U
Paratropika 2 (2): 26-39 (1994)

Abstract:
Sentani hill area and the surroundings in Irian Jaya is one of barren areas in Indonesia due to erosion in wet seasons and fires in dry seasons. Reforestation and afforestation are alternatives to improve the ecosystem in this area. A research was conducted to select suitable species for this area and to recommend the next silvicultural actions. A fieldwork was conducted by ground survey and collecting secondary data. The primary data needed were physical and chemical properties of soil, slope, altitude, flora, pests and diseases. The secondary data needed were annual rainfall, number of wet and dry months, relative humidity, ambient temperature, maximum and minimum temperatures. The results showed that the most parts of the area were lacking of nutrients in varying degrees. The promising species for reforestation in the area were Acacia mangium, Anthocephalus chinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus, Cassia siamea, Gliricidia sepium, Intsia bijuga, Octomeles sumatrana, Paraserianthes falcataria, Pterocarpus indicus and Samanea saman. The species recommended for afforestation were Aleurites moluccana, Anacardium occidentale, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Gnetum gnemon, Parkia speciosa and Pometia pinnata. Planting stocks for reforestation and afforestation should be of high quality and they should be planted at the beginning of the wet season. Plant protection from fire, pests and diseases should be done intensively.

Availability :
Library; Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Centre (FRDC); Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5; Bogor 16001; West Java; Indonesia; P.O. Box 165; phone: (62) (251) 315 234, 315 567; fax: (62) (251) 325 111




NO. 101960

Ethnobotany of the Sundanese side-dish plants: a case study on Bogor Botanic Gardens personnel
Etnobotani tetumbuhan lalaban suku Sunda: studi kasus karyawan Kebun Raya Bogor

Hanan, A
Technical Executing Unit of the Institute for the Development of Botanical Gardens, LIPI; Bogor, Indonesia

Prosiding Seminar dan Lokakarya Nasional Etnobotani II [Proceedings of the 2nd National Seminar and Workshop on Ethnobotany]; Yogyakarta, 24-25 Januari 1995; Nasution, RE et al (eds); Jakarta, Ikatan Pustakawan Indonesia, 1995; Buku 2; p 393-403

Abstract:
"Lalaban" are raw vegetables consumed by the Sundanese in West Java. Plant parts, either seed, young fruit, flower, or young leaves are freshly eaten with rice. The knowledge of plants used for lalaban has been known for a long time by this tribe. Species of plants and plant parts used for lalaban are discussed in this paper.

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense Library
Email: herbogor@indo.net.id




NO. 95456

Mutagenicity and clastogenicity potential of decoction and infusions from Philippine medicinal plants


Lim-Sylianco, CY; Concha, JA; San Agustin, J; Panizares, I; Pablo, C
Bulletin of the Philippine Biochemical Society 3 (1&2): 54-65 (1980)

Abstract:
The Philippine National Formulary lists Philippine plants whose decoctions and infusions are used for medicinal purposes. Mutagenicity potential of these decoctions and infusions were studied without metabolic activation and after metabolic activation. Without metabolic activation, decoction from leaves of Plantago major and from leaves and bark of Pittosporum pentandrum induce frameshift mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium. After metabolism in the experimental mice, these induced both base-pair and frameshift mutagenesis. Decoctions from bark of Pithecellobium dulce induced base-pair mutagenesis without metabolic activation. Upon metabolic activation in the mice, this tendency was lost. Instead it induced frameshift mutations. Decoctions from stems of Arcangelisia fava, induced noth base-pair and frameshift mutations without metabolic activation. However, this mutagenic property was lost upon metabolism in the experimental mice.

Availability :
Library; Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI): College of Forestry and Natural Resources (CFNR), College, Laguna, Philippines




NO. 37075

A survey of farming and processing practices of cashew farmers


Paduga, PQ; Bayuga, CM
Palawan Agricultural Research Center, Aborlan, Philippines

RETRES Research Abstracts, Palawan Agricultural Research Center; 1979; 35p; MISD; PCARRD

Abstract:
A study on the farming and processing practices of farmers was conducted in six localities in Palawan, Guimaras, subprovince of Iloilo and in Antipolo, Rizal from October 1978 to September 1979. One hundred eighty three cashew farmers were randomly selected and interviewed. Majority of the farmers interviewed owned small cashew farms (0.1 to 3.0 hectares) which are mostly backyard plantings; six owned farms with hectarage of 3.1 to 6.0; and five owned farms with hectarage of 6.1 and over. Average land area planted to cashew was 1.95 hectares. Most of the farmers (69.2%) considered the size of the nut in selecting seeds for planting. Usual practice was to select the big seeds from the bulk of nuts gathered from different trees rather than from fruitful trees. All farmers interviewed used the seeds for planting. The most common practice was to place the seed in shallow hole (0.15 to 5 inches in depth) in any position. Majority of the farmers in Palawan practices brushing or clearing the cashew area of weeds and grasses; however, the common practice was to do it only once a year, usually just before or during flowering. Pruning was practiced by only 41.35% of the farmers interviewed, and 64.35% adopted intercropping. All the farmers did not control the pests that attacked the trees. Termites were the most common pests observed. Some farmers cut down and burned the trees infested by termites. With regards to harvesting practice, 42.9% of the farmers waited for the fruits to fall then gathered the nuts later. Very few picked the fruits from the trees. All those interviewed simply dried and sold the whole nuts to buyers without any further processing. Over 29% sold the nuts to local buyers or agents. Statistical tests showed significant relationship between adoption of seed selection, pruning and intercropping practices and yield of cashew.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños; Laguna




NO. 37083

Survey and control of insect pest of minor fruit crops in the Philippines: avocado, cashew, guava, guyabano, jackfruit, and strawberry


Quimio, AJ; Gabriel, BP; Sumalde, AC
RETRES Research Abstracts; Survey of Diseases and Insect Pests of Some Minor Fruits and Their Control; University of the Philippines at Los Baños; 1985; p 52-80; PCARRD Proj. No. 34-222-21; MISD

Abstract:
A field disease survey showed 84 species of insects infesting the minor fruit crops. Among these, the following were considered most destructive: Aegeria sp. (barkborer) on avocado; Gracillariidae (leaffolder) and Ferris vigrata (mealy bug) on cashew; Aleurodicus dispernus (white fly) and Dacus dorsalis (fruitfly) on guava; Heterographis bengalella (fruitborer), Planococcus lilacinus (mealy bug) and Hilda breviceps (treehopper) on guayabano; Diaphania caesalis (fruit moth) and Dacus umbrosus (fruitfly ) on jackfruit; and Leucopholis irrorata (white grub) and Spodoptera litura (cutworm) on strawberry. Carbaryl at 0.4% a.i. was found to be most effective in controlling cashew leaffolder. Malathion (0.1% a.i.), Methomyl (0.5% a.i.) and Diazinon (0.2% a.i.) were also found effective. When sprayed five times at 15-day intervals, these insecticides could reduce leaffolder infestation by 90-100%. Five spraying of Methomyl (0.5% a.i.) and Chlorpyrifos (0.1% a.i.) at 15-day intervals eradicated bark borer on severely infested avocado trunks. Diazinon (0.2% a.i.), Methomyl (0.5% a.i.) and Chlorpyrifos (0.1% a.i.) sprayed four times at 15-day intervals reduced whitefly population on guava by 80-86%. Malathion (0.1% a.i.) also effectively controlled whitefly population build-up. Carbaryl (0.4% a.i.), Methomyl (0.5% a.i.) and Malathion (0.1% a.i.) sprayed at 14-day intervals completely protected guayabano from fruitborer infestation.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños; Laguna




NO. 93336

Physical properties of some Philippine vegetable oils


Medinan, FA; Clemente, A
Natural and Applied Science Bulletin 4 (1): 61-92 (1934)

Abstract:
The physical properties of calupang (Sterculia foetida), palomaria de la Playa (Calophyllum inophyllum), pilinut (Canarium ovatum), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), kapok (Ceiba pentandra, lumbang (Aleurites moluccana), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), tangan-tangan (Ricinus comunis), tuba (Jatropha curcas), and coconut oils were determined. The data obtained seem to show that complete solubility of an oil in 95% alcohol may be taken as possible of the presence of hydroxylated fatty acids in the oil; and low congealing point, an indication of a drying oil. The data on viscosity seem to indicates that a lubricating oil may be produced by blending proper proportions of tangan-tangan and tuba oils or tangan-tangan and coconut oils.

Availability :
Main Library, University of the Philippines Los Baños; College, Laguna, Philippines; phone: (63) (49) 5362 326, 5362 235; fax: (63) (49) 3673
Email: vga@library.upb.edu.ph




NO. 94654

Cashew + pineapple + coffee - farming


Cacatian, NG
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 21 (sup. 1): 33 (1996)

Abstract:
A study was conducted to show whether planting of pineapple and coffee under cashew is profitable. The average fruit weight of pineapple is 1.72 kg. Pineapple must be planted from July-august. It must be planted in a double row system with a distance of 75 cm x 30 cm between plants in a row. Shading of cashew did not affect the fruit length, width and diameter of pineapple. Handweeding for pineapple and coffee should be done while underbrushing for cashew tree. It was revealed that there was a significant variation obtained on the yield of seed per tree. Seeds taken from T3 (cashew + pineapple) was significantly higher than T4 (cashew + coffee + pineapple). The average weight yield produced per hectare for a fully bearing cashew was 529.521 kg having a value of P10,067.58. Additional income from pineapple per hectare was P5,283.25. Total net income realized from cashew and pineapple was P10,745.35. Coffee was just starting to bear berries.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 76328

Anacardium occidentale
Cay Dao lon hot

Pham Van Nguyen
Nhung cay co dau beo tai Vietnam [Fat oil plants in Vietnam]; Hanoi, Scientific and Technical Publishing House, 1981; p 16-21

Abstract:
Anacardium occidentale originated from Brazil. In Vietnam, it is planted in Quang Nam, Da Nang, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Tay Ninh, Song Be provinces. The oil from its fruit peel contains anacalic acid (90%) and cardol. This oil can be used in industry, in medicine; the filling contains 21.2% protein, 46.9% fat oil, 22.3% glucid, 2.4% minerals. This filling can be used to make a cake, vegetable oil. This tree is propagated by seed, producing fruits after 3-4 years. The seed yield can reach 2 t/ha/year.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam; 31 Trang Thi road, Hoan Kiem district, Hanoi, Vietnam; Phone: 84 4 824465, 84 4 8255397; Fax: 84 4 8253357




NO. 94635

Diversity in mango accessions based on isozyme analysis and some morphological characters


Pascua, GS; Espino, RRC; Namuco, LO; Sangalang, JB; Rimando, TJ
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 21(sup. 1): 10 (1996)

Abstract:
Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis using leaf extracts was conducted to determine genetic variability among the various populations of 'Carabao' mango in the country. Genetic relationship between 'Carabao' mango and twelve other varieties, two Mangifera species ('Bauno'-Mangifera caesia and 'Pali'- Mangifera sp.) and one cashew variety (Makiling - Anacardium occidentale) were also determined. Thirty-three electromorphs, showing presence versus absence of electrophoretic band were used for qualitative characterization of the different accessions. Multivariate analyses of the electromorphs of phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), isocitric dehyfrogenase (IDH), and alanine aminopeptidase (ALAP) differentiated zymotypes by varietal constitution. Hierarchical cluster analysis (UPGMA) identified three zymotype patterns exhibited by the 78 'Carabao' mango accessions and 19 zymotypes of the 107 accessions. Principal component analysis showed the divergence of 'Makiling', 'Bauno' and 'Pali' from the Mangifera indica species. Hierarchical cluster analysis (UPGMA) performed on dissimilarity matrix based on the Euclidean distance on 22 morphological characters revealed 8 clusters of the 'Carabao' mango accessions and 11 clusters of the 107 accessions.

Availability :
PROSEA Philippines Country Office




NO. 37085

Storage, transport and graftability of scions of fruit trees


Sotto, RC; Operio, E; Dela Cruz Jr, FS
RETRES Research Abstracts; Los Baños, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, 1985; 72 p; UPLB-PCARRD Project; MISD

Abstract:
A three-year study was undertaken to determine the best storage temperature, packing material and transport condition of selected fruit tree scions. Scions were packed in coirdust, newspaper, polyethylene sheet, saw dust and sphagnum moss stored at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 27-30 °C for one, two, four and eight weeks. For most species, the best storage period was one week. However, survival percentage for mango dropped drastically beyond one week. Caimito, chico, mango and santol can be stored at 20 °C and lanzones at 10 °C to obtain a high survival percentage of the scions. The best packing material was newspaper followed by coirdust, polyethylene sheet and sphagnum moss with sawdust. Scions placed in an ice chest with or without ice regardless of the packing material used appeared green and fresh after transport. Mail transit trials of scions of avocado, pili, rambutan, cashew and mango gave different results. For avocado, pili and rambutan scions, resulting grafted plants all died a few days after grafting. On the other hand, the cashew scions packed in perforated polyethylene bags produced the highest percentage of successful graft union and scion condition rating among the different treatments. In terms of plant vigor, no significant differences among treatments were observed in cashew and mango.

Availability :
Library; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Baños; Laguna




NO. 67996

Description and keys to the identification of tropical fruit trees


Trisonthi, Chusie
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Thailand

BIOTROP Special Publication 51: 85-96 (1993)

Abstract:
The tropical fruit is an important source of food for human-beings. The lesser-known plants producing edible fruits have been the subject of intensive survey especially in the tropical countries. These plants are identified to species level by using taxonomic keys published in various floras. These keys are usually based on floral characteristics. However, the morphological characteristics of fruits and seeds in each family or genus are also consistent enough to be used as the basic of taxonomic keys. Surveys on tropical fruit trees were carried out over ten years in Brazil, French Guyana and Thailand. Samples of trees producing edible fruits were collected, morphological characteristics were described and the species were identified. The keys to species were constructed based on the specific morphology of the fruits and seeds. Details of each species are fully described, including keys to the identification of tropical fruit trees. (Author's abstract)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office
Email: info@proseanet.org|prosea@indo.net.id




NO. 102684

Preliminary study on the effect of bitung against Toxoptera aurantii Boyer and Sitophilus oryzae L.


Wikardi, EA; Kardinan, A
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC), Bogor, Indonesia

Journal of Spices and Medicinal Crops 3 (1): 31-36 (1994)

Abstract:
The effect of bitung (Barringtonia acutangula) against aphid Toxoptera aurantii on cashew and stored product insect Sitophillus oryzae on rice was studied in the laboratory of the Department of Entomology and in Cimanggu Experimental Garden of the Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogor, from June to July 1994. The research consisted of 3 observations, i.e. 1. The effect of bitung used as liquid (spray) on Taxoptera aurantii on cashew, 2. Effect of bitung used as flour/dust on the refusal percentage of Sitophillus oryzae, 3. Effect of bitung used as flour/dust on the mortality of Sitophillus oryzae. The result showed that bitung could control up to 81.6% of the aphid population at 24 h.a.a. (hours after application) and 100% at 48 h.a.a. Refusal effect of bitung to Sitophillus oryzae was about 80.8% 5 days after application. Bitung killed up to 60% Sitophillus oryzae population 14 days after infestation.

Availability :
Forest Research and Development Centre, Library




NO. 51494

Effect of some botanical insecticides against dry wood termites Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. (Kalotermitidae)


Kardinan, A; Kodama, O; Jasni; Yuliani, S; Iskandar, M
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor, Indonesia

Proceedings International Seminar on Natural Products Chemistry and Utilization of Natural Resources, June 5 – 7, 2001, Universitas Indonesia, Depok Indonesia; Kosela, S et al. (eds); Depok, Universitas Indonesia, 2001; p 238-242

Abstract:
A research to evaluate some botanical insecticides against dry wood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus) was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory of the Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogor in 2000. The botanical insecticides evaluated were extracts of neem seed (Azadirachta indica), Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale and citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus, synonym: Cymbopogon nardus). The research was laid out following a Completely Randomized Design with 10 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments consisted of 3 botanical insecticides (neem, CNSL, and citronella grass) at 5%, 2.5% and 1% concentrations each, and one control. Each treatment was applied into rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) 5 cm x 2.5 cm x 2 cm. The woods were soaked in the botanical insecticides solution for about 24 hours, then air dried for about 30 days. On top of the wood was put a cylindrical glass, 1.8 cm x 3.5 cm, to infest 50 worker-termites for 12 weeks in a dark room. Observations were carried out on the mortality of the termites and degree of wood damage. The results revealed that all botanical insecticides tested were able to depress the termite population and wood damage, however, citronella grass seemed to be the most potential, either on depressing termite population or protecting the wood tested. Citronella grass at 5% concentration was able to cause 100% termite mortality, followed by neem (65%) and CNSL (61%). Citronella grass at 5% concentration was able to protect the wood as low as 1.8% of wood damage, followed by CNSL (9.4%) and neem (9.8%) at the same concentration.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 51496

Isolation and antioxidative activity of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)


Cahyana, AH; Yatmani, S
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Indonesia; Depok, West Java, Indonesia

Proceedings International Seminar on Natural Products Chemistry and Utilization of Natural Resources, June 5 – 7, 2001, Universitas Indonesia, Depok Indonesia; Kosela, S et al. (eds); Depok, Universitas Indonesia, 2001; p 260-261

Abstract:
Natural cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was isolated from the half-shells of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) by using extraction solvent with carbon tetrachloride. The extract showed strong antioxidative activity when tested by using ferric thiocyanate and TBA methods. Chromatographic purification gave an active oily substance. This compound showed comparable antioxidative activity with alfa-tocopherol and could be expected to act as an antioxidant in food. The phenolic compound seems to be important for the antioxidative activity.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 51510

Isolation of pectin from cashew apple


Sumangat, D; Yanti, L; Mulyono, E; Winarti, C
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor, Indonesia

Proceedings International Seminar on Natural Products Chemistry and Utilization of Natural Resources, June 5 – 7, 2001, Universitas Indonesia, Depok Indonesia; Kosela, S et al. (eds); Depok, Universitas Indonesia, 2001; p 413-416.

Abstract:
A preliminary trial on the isolation of pectin from cashew-apple has been conducted in the Laboratory of Postharvest Technology, Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogor using modified Towle and Christensen method. The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of some treatments of purification on the yield and physiological-chemical characteristics of pectin extracted from cashew-apple. The raw material used was oven dried cashew-apples (red and yellow types) from Wonogiri, Central Java, which was ground to 10 mesh particle size. The powder was extracted with water (ratio 1:10) at pH 2 (adjusted by HCl). Extraction was carried out by stirring in baker-glass at 85-90 °C for 60 minutes, followed by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated until half of its volume, then precipitated for 12 hours by adding ethanol 95% (ratio 1:1). The precipitate as crude pectin was purified by the following treatments: (1) washed with ethanol until free of HCl, (B) reprecipitated by adding aquadest (55 °C) and ethanol 95% + HCl 1% and the precipitate was washed with ethanol 95%, (C) adding activated carbon 2%, solution was heated, filtered and precipitated, (d) adding aqua bromide 0.1% and precipitated, (E) washed with acetone. The pectin was then dried in a freeze drier, weighted and analized. The results showed that the yield of pectin varied from 5.55 – 9.37%, ash content 0.237 – 1.19%, the equivalent weight 2.538 – 5.391%, while degree of esterification (DE) 72.677 – 81.55%. The content of methoxyl and anhydrogalacturonic acid varied from 2.99 – 4.91% and 27.15 – 35.92%, respectively. The colour of dried pectin varied from brownish yellow to pale brown. Overall result showed that the treatment B (reprecipitation) produced pectin which met the required specification except its colour.

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 840

The feasibility of establishing a regional technology bank for agroindustries


Somaatmadja, D
Bogor Research Institute for Chemistry; Indonesia

Komunikasi Balai Penelitian Kimia Bogor [Communication of Bogor Research Institute for Chemistry] (203): 1-31 (1977)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 1068

Farming systems research in the rainfed lowlands of Bone Regency, South Sulawesi
Penelitian pola usaha tani pada lahan sawah tadah hujan di Kabupaten Bone, Sulawesi Selatan

Pandang, MS; Bahar, FA; Bachtiar
Maros Research Institute for Food Crops; Indonesia

Agrikam 2(2): 58-64(1987)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 5132

Reforestation in Indonesian Timor


Hadi, S
Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; Indonesia

Paper presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver, Canada, 1975; 7p

Availability :
SEAMEO-BIOTROP Library




NO. 13796

Agroforestry in Thailand
Rabop wanakaset nai prathetthai

Phothai, M
Workshops on Forest Land Management in Agroforestry System, 18-20 October 1985, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand; p56-78

Availability :
Library; Royal Forest Department; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 20122

Notes on current investigations, October to December 1951


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya

The Malayan Agricultural Journal 35(1): 36-52(1952)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 20761

Soil fertility, nutrient requirement and fertilization


Othman Yaacob
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang; Selangor

Fruit Production in Malaysia; Othman Yaacob(ed); Serdang; Selangor; Agricultural University of Malaysia; 1980; page?

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 30596

The Philippines recommends for fruit processing and utilization


Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna

Bulletin Series No.68; Los Banos; Laguna; Philippine Agriculture and Resources Research Foundation, Inc; 1988; 100p

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 31562

Climate, soil and cultural requirements of selected Philippine fruits


Matienzo, LH, Jr
Greenfields 3(2): 2-8(1973)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 32487

Making wine from Philippine fruits


Agualada, HS
Greenfields 7(11): 10-12(1977)

Availability :
Library; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; College; Laguna




NO. 34208

Performance of corot applied with hagonoy under cashew plantation


Pagaduan, IO
BSc thesis; Aborlan; Palawan National Agricultural College; 1982; 21p

Availability :
Library; Palawan National Agricultural College; Aborlan; Philippines




NO. 34542

Preparation of wine from Philippine fruits


Gonzales, LG
University of the Philippines College of Agriculture Bi-weekly Bulletin 1(11): 1-2(1933)

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development; Los Banos; Laguna




NO. 40292

Matching plants and land: development of a general broad scale system from a crop project for Papua New Guinea


Hackett, C
Division of Water and Land Resources; CSIRO; Canberra; Australia

Natural Resources Series No.11; Canberra; Division of Water and Land Resources; CSIRO; 1983; ixp; 82p

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 2395

Effect of ageing through ethanol vapour on seed viability and metabolite content of cashew
Pengaruh pengusangan dengan uap etanol terhadap daya kecambah dan kandungan metabolit jambu mete

Toruan, N; Hasanah, M
Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contributions of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] 9 (50): 44-53 (1984)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 3383

Cashew for barren lands
Mete, manfaat dari lahan gersang

Siswoputranto, LLD
Tumbuh [Growing] 1 (4): 47-54 (1988)

Availability :
PROSEA Indonesia Country Office; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 10453

Poisonous plants
Phuet miphit

Chantra-on, C
Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand

Kasikorn [Farmers Journal] 45 (3): 209-215 (1972)

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 20088

Notes on current investigations, October to December 1953


Agricultural Division; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya

The Malayan Agricultural Journal 37 (1): 22-32 (1953)

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 67581

Identification of fatty acids in several vegetable oils
Identifikasi asam lemak pada beberapa minyak nabati

Budi-Saroso
Research Institute for Tobacco and Fibre Crops; Malang; East Java; Indonesia

Buletin Tembakau dan Serat [Tobacco and Fibre Crops Bulletin] 1 (12): 26-29 (1992)

Availability :
Research Institute for Tobacco and Fibre Crops Library; Malang; East Java; Indonesia




NO. 66154

Utilizing drylands for prosperity
Manfaatkan lahan kering untuk kesejahteraan

Anonymous
Ujung Pandang Agricultural Information Service 5 (8): ? (1982-1983)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 101298

Chances of biological control on some medicinal and spices crops
Peluang pengendalian hayati pada berbagai tanaman rempah dan obat

Anonymous
Central Research Institute for Industrial Crops (CRIIC); Bogor; Indonesia

Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian [Agricultural Research and Development News] 16 (5): 9-11 (1994)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 4868

Observation on the implementation of regreening in Babakan Madang, Karang Tengah and Bojong Koneng villages, Citeureup Subdistrict, Citeureup Subwatershed, Bekasi Watershed
Tinjauan pelaksanaan penghijauan di desa Babakan Madang, Desa Karang Tengah dan Desa Bojong, Kecamatan Citeureup, Sub DAS Citeureup, Daerah Aliran Sungai Bekasi

Polem, T.Y
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1984; 85p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 8077

Regreening in West Nusa Tenggara
Penghijauan di NTB

Anonymous
West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service; West Nusa Tenggara; Indonesia

Buletin Informasi Pertanian NTB [West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Bulletin] (3): 4-5 (1981/1982)

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 9774

Getting to know some plants for regreening
Mengenal beberapa jenis tanaman penghijauan

Anonymous
West Nusa Tenggara Agricultural Information Service; 1983; 36p

Availability :
Agricultural Human Resources Development Management Center




NO. 40192

Some nut-bearing plants in Papua New Guinea


Henty, E.E
Division of Botany; Office of Forests; Lae; Papua New Guinea

Proceedings of the Second Papua New Guinea Food Crops Conference, Goroka, 14-18th July 1980; Port Moresby; Department of Primary Industry; 1982; Part 1; p78-85

Availability :
Library; PNG University of Technology; Lae; Papua New Guinea




NO. 62519

Determination of seed quality of important forestry plants in Indonesia by using X-ray method
Penentuan kualitas biji-biji tanaman kehutanan terpenting di Indonesia dengan menggunakan sinar-X

Dridjosoemarto, S
Faculty of Forestry; Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia

Laporan Penelitian Proyek PPPT-UGM [Research Report of "PPPT-UGM" Project] (39): 1-27 (1977/1978)

Availability :
Library of Gadjah Mada University; Yogyakarta; Indonesia




NO. 103116

Agroforestry for dry-island ecosystems: Strategic approach for Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia


Suriamihardja, S
Savana (8): 1-14 (1993)

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 101794

Diagnostic manual for industrial crop disease in Indonesia


Kobayashi, T; Oniki, M; Matsumoto, K; Sitepu, Dj; Manohara, D; Tanba, M; Djiwanti, S.R; Nurawan, A; Rachmat, A; Wahyuno, D; Nazarudin, S.B
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops (RISMC); Bogor; Indonesia

Japan International Cooporation Agency and Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; 1993; ATA-380 Programme; 107p

Availability :
Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research (CSAR); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 2675

Conservation and utilization of spice and medicinal crops genetic resources
Upaya pelestarian dan pemanfaatan plasma nutfah tanaman rempah dan obat

Wahid, P
Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Edisi Khusus Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat [Special Edition on Spice and Medicinal Crops Research] 3 (1): 1-5 (1987)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 67943

New diseases of some industrial crops and their pathogens in Indonesia


Kobayashi, T; Djiwanti, S.R; Manohara, D; Wahyuno, D; Oniki, M
Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops; Bogor; Indonesia|Jica Short-term Expert; Jica Long-term Expert

Proceedings of final seminar of the joint-study programme ATA-380 (Srengthening research and disease of industrial crops in Indonesia); Sitepu, D. (ed); Manohara, D. (ed); Oniki, M. (ed); Japan International Cooperation Agency; Agency for Agricultural Research and Development; 1992; p90-92

Abstract:
There are not much information of the diseases on industrial crops, especially of the medicinal crops. Identification of the causal agent of those diseases is one of the important factors for making the decision on controlling the disease. Plant disease surveys on industrial crops in Indonesia were conducted to identify their causal agents. During the survey, some diseases which have not recorded in Indonesia were observed. Those diseases were white root rot of Cinnamomum cassia caused by Dematopthora necatrix, brown leaf blight of Cassia alata caused by Cercospora sp., sooty blotch of Clausena excavata caused by Mycovellosiella sp., brown leaf spot of Blumea balsamiifera caused by Pseudocercospora blumea-balsamiferae, white spot of Zingiber ottensii caused by Phyllosticta zingiberii, and leaf spot of Anacardium occidentale caused by Pestalotiopsis desseminata. But effort to prevent spreads of the pathogen is necessary needed, so it hoped did not become problems on agricultural cultivation in the future. (Revised authors' abstract)

Availability :
PROSEA Network Office




NO. 63827

Traditional medicines for diabetic disease
Obat-obatan tradisional untuk penyakit kencing manis

Thomas, A.N.S
Suara Pembaharuan; Jakarta (3 November); (1988)

Availability :
Research and Development Centre for Biology (RDCB); Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 92515

Mutagenicity and clastogenicity potential of decoctions and infusions from Philippine medicinal plants


Anonymous
Bulletin of Philippine Biochemistry Society. v.3 (1&2): p 54-65, (1980). MFN 000461

Abstract:
The Philippine National Formulary lists Philippine plants whose decoctions and infusions are used for medicinal purposes. Mutagenicity potential of these decoctions and infusions were studied without metabolic activation and after metabolic activation. Without metabolic activation, decoction from the leaves of (P. major L.) and decoctions from the decoctions from the leaves and barks of (Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merrill) induced frameshift mutagenesis in (Salmonella typhimurium). After metabolism in the experimental mice, these induced both base-pair and frameshift mutagenesis. Decoctions from bark of (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxburgh) Benth.) induced base-pair mutagenesis without activation. Upon metabolic activation in the mice, this tendency was lost. Instead, it induced frameshift mutations. Decoctions from stems of (A. fava (L.) Merrill) induced both base-pair and frameshift mutations without metabolic activation. However, this mutagenic property was lost upon metabolism in the experimental mice.The following are non-mutagenic before and after metabolism: 1. Decoctions from leaves of (Citrus documana L.) (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume), (Moringa oleifera Lamk), (Pandanus odoratissimus L.), (Persea americana Mill.),(Psidium guajava L.), (Sterculia foetida L.) and (Tamarindus indica L.); 2. Decoctions from plants of (Apium graveolens L.) (Mimosa pudica Linn.), (Rosmarinus officinales L.), and (Solanum nigrum L.); 3. Decoctions from bark of (Mangifera indica L.) and (Michelina chamapaca L.); 4. Decoctions from kernel of (Arecha catechu L.), from bran of (Oryza sativa L.) and from hair and cob of (Zea mays L.); 5. Infusions from leaves of (Momordica balsamina Blanco), from bark and leaves of (Anacardium occidentale L.), from fruit of (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and from leaves of (Mangifera indica L.); 6. Clastogenicity or chromosome breaking potential was exhibited by decoctions from leaves and bark of (Pittosporum pantaclrum (Blanco) Merr.), decoctions from leaves of (Plantago major L.), decoctions from leaves of (Eucalyptus deglupta Blume) and decoctions from cobs of (Zea mays L.). Infusions from leaves of (Anacardium occidentale L.) also showed chromosome breaking effects.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Bicutan; Taguig; Metro Manila; Philippines




NO. 4336

Testing the seed viability of some tree species for regreening
Pengujian viabilitas benih berbagai pohon untuk penghijauan

Juanda, I
Thesis; Bogor; Faculty of Forestry; Bogor Agricultural University; 1976; 76p

Availability :
Bogor Agricultural University, Central Library




NO. 12168

Study on clove, nutmeg and cashew nut as intercrops of mature coconut
Kan pluk kanphlu chanthet lae mamuang himmaphan pen phut saem nai suan maphrao

Klotpheng, K; Phayakphong, C; Rattanapruk, M; Ngankaranathikan, P; Raktham, S; Thirakun, A
Chumphon Horticultural Research Centre; Thailand

Chumphon Horticultural Research Centre Annual Research Report 1988; p84-86

Availability :
Horticultural Research Center; Department of Agriculture; Bangkok; Thailand




NO. 252

Pepper and cashew plantations in the Province of Jambi
Pertanaman lada dan jambu mete di Propinsi Jambi

Abisono; Mardjono, R
Research Institute for Industrial Crops; Bogor; Indonesia

Pemberitaan Lembaga Penelitian Tanaman Industri [Contribution of the Research Institute for Industrial Crops] (17/18): 19-32 (1974)

Availability :
Herbarium Bogoriense; Bogor; Indonesia




NO. 34201

Effect of different placements of inorganic fertilizer on the growth of patchouli under cashew plantations


Marcon,IB
BSc thesis; Aborlan; Palawan National Agricultural College; 1985; 16p

Availability :
Library;Palawan National Agricultural College;Aborlan;Philippines




NO. 20445

The influence of soil types on the performance of cashew nut on bris soil: Part IV
Penentuan faktor-faktor tanah ke atas tumbesaran dan pemakanan gajus di kawasan tanah bris: Bahagian IV

Othman,Y;Bunsu,S;Umi Kalsom,H
Agricultural University of Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Malaysian Applied Biology 12(2): 37-42(1983)

Abstract:
The influence of soil types on the performance of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L) was analysed and evaluated by using data collected from fertilizer-observation trial laid out by CIMA in 1978 at Besut, Trengganu. The seasonal as well as the cumulative yield of raw nuts collected from 1979 to 1982 were used in this analysis. It was found that the site having a better soil type (Redua Series) with a higher level of organic matter content, gave higher yield in response up to 3 lbs/tree of five types of commercial fertilizers. Under the same types and rates of fertilizer application, the site having poorer soil type (Jambu Series), with relatively lower soil organic matter levels in combination with commercial fertilizers is discussed in relation to their wider use for cashew production on sandy (Bris) soils on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

Availability :
University Putra Malaysia




NO. 23033


Masaalah-masaalah penanaman gajus di tanah bris

Chai, T.B., A. Samat, W.
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI); Kemaman, Terengganu, Malaysia

Teknologi Pertanian (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute); Serdang; Selangor; Malaysia 5(2): 178-189 (1984)

Abstract:
Among the various problems that limit the status of cashew nut as a field crop in bris soil areas, at present include soil and climatic factors shortage of high yielding cultivation in correct field management techniques and pest/disease problems. This article discusses the effects of the problems mentioned. Although the performance of cashew nut is less heartening there are still prospects that can uplift its production. Even a yield of 2 409 kg/ha had been attained, prospects to further improve is yield texture and efficient field management have also gained confidence. The prospect of a chieving a quicker gross return in brighter in view of the success obtained in vegetative propagation which can transform unproductive plants to those of high yielding trees.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25122

A preliminary study on the amino acids content of local plants - "ulam"


Samsinah, Hh; Tan, Sc; Chin, Wy
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Universiti Sains Malaysia; Penang.

Proceedings of the International Conference on the use of Traditional Medicine & Other Natural in Health Care; 8-11 June 1993; p enang; p 595

Abstract:
A preliminary study was carried out on the amino acids content in the protein of two local plant which are normally eaten raw. They are Vigina sinensis and Anacardium occidentale. Reverse-phase HPLC method was used to separate the amino acid components which are released from the protein by hydrolysis. The amino acid mixtures were derivatised with ortho- phthaldehyde/2-mercaptoethanol (OPA/MCE) for detection in a fluorometric detector. The amount of amino acids content in Vigna sinensis and Anacardium occidentale are 7.43 mg/g (dry edible portion) and 7.77 mg/g (dry edible portion), respectively. The presence of specific amino acids, in the plants may enable them to be commercially utilized as a nutritious and cheap source of amino acid supplements.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25343

Potential for the development of a cashew nut industry in Malaysia


SEDKY, A
Food Tech Res. Dep. Cen., Rep. No. 73(1972)

Abstract:
All indications show that ecologically and agronomically, cashew nut can grow successfully on the coastal Areas of West Malaysia and that the trees are particularly adaptable to the sandy 'Bris' soils presently not being fully exploited economically.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 39609

Survival and growth of cashew intercropped with giant ipil-ipil at different spacings


Bucad, AU
Mariano Marcos State University;Batac;Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Research Abstracts (1986-1987); Batac, Ilocos Norte, Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU), 1987; p 66-67

Abstract:
This study determined the effect of intercropping on the growth and survival of cashew intercropped with ipil-ipil at different spacing intervals. Spacing did not significantly affect the survival and growth of both species 1.5 years after planting. The 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing under the giant ipil-ipil exhibited higher percent survival than the 2 m x 2 m spacing. The reverse was true for cashew. Height increment of both species was higher at 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing than at 2 m x 2 m spacing. On the other hand, diameter increment at 2 m x 2 m spacing was higher than the 1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 39610

Cashew-based farming system


Rebugio, A
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium (ILARRDEC);Mariano Marcos State University;Batac;Ilocos Norte

Proceedings and Abstracts of Researches during the 1992 ILARRDEC Regional Symposium on R & D Highlights;MMSU;Batac;Ilocos Norte: Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium;p. 52;1992

Abstract:
Subsurface irrigation and the introduction of intercrops had shortened the unproductive period of cashew, thereby increasing the income generating capability of the agroforestry system. Cashew trees started bearing fruits on the third year. With the introduction of intercrops, income from it is already being realized, thereby providing the farmer an immediate and steady source of income while waiting for the cashew trees to become productive. Productivity of annual crops is expected to decline on the 5th year when the canopy of the cashew start to overlap because of the effect of shading. At this stage, trials for more adaptive crops will now commence. Pasture and foddler crops for goat production and ginger are some of the recommended alternative intercrops.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 92042

An efficient way to raise cashew seedlings


Pablico, SM
Greenfields 23 (5): 30-31 (1995)

Abstract:
A new method of raising cashew sedlings involves the use of sandust as germination medium. This was discovered by researchers of the Mariano Marcos State University.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92044

Subsurface irrigation hastens cashew maturity


Matutino, MO
Greenfields 23 (4): 16 (1995)

Abstract:
Many farmers hesitate to plant cashew because it takes 5 years before bearing fruits. But subsurface irrigations cuts it into 2 years to provide farmers with immediate sources of income.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 92940

Inoculation procedures and the evaluation of peppers for resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum


Perera, KDA; Hartman, GL; Poulos, JM
Proceedings; International Conference on Bacterial Wilt; Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 28-31 October 1992; p193-198

Abstract:
Experiments were conducted to develop an effective inoculation procedure to evaluate host plant resistance in peppers to Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. Three inoculation techniques-tooth-pick stabbing, soil drenching with root severing and soil drenching without root severing- were tested with two strains of P. solanacearum on 20-and 34 day-old seedlings. Tooth-pick stabbing and soil drenching with root severing yielded similar percentages of wilt in susceptible and resistant lines, indicating that they were equally effective screening procedures. The root-severing technique, however, was relatively easy to apply and more clearly resembled natural inoculation than did tooth-pick stabbing. The final percentage wilt was not significantly affected by the age at which the plants were inoculated but the rate of wilting was higher for younger seedlings. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage wilt caused by the two strains, the pepper strain P571 was slightly more aggressive than the tomato strain PS4. Of 81 varieties screened for resistance, several showed complete absence of wilting with the root-severing technique.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 93216

Inoculation procedures and the evaluation of peppers for resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum


Perera, KDA; Hartman, GL; Poulos, JM
Proceedings;International Conference on Bacterial Wilt;Kaohsiung,Taiwan; 28-31 October,1992;pp.193-198

Abstract:
Experiments were conducted to develop an effective inoculation procedure to evaluate host plant resistance in peppers to Pseudomonas solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt. Three inoculation techniques--tooth-pick stabbing, soil drenching with root severing and soil drenching without root severing- were tested with two strains of P. solanacearum on 20-and 34 day-old seedlings. Tooth-pick stabbing and soil drenching with root severing yielded similar percentages of wilt in susceptible and resistant lines, indicating that they were equally effective screening procedures. The root-severing technique, however, was relatively easy to apply and more clearly resembled natural inoculation than did tooth-pick stabbing. The final percentage wilt was not significantly affected by the age at which the plants were inoculated but the rate of wilting was higher for younger seedlings. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage wilt caused by the two strains, the pepper strain P571 was slightly more aggressive than the tomato strain PS4. Of 81 varieties screened for resistance, several showed complete absence of wilting with the root-severing technique.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 94494

Abortive effect of the crude extract of bruised cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) on pregnant laboratory mice


Alcaraz, P
Inventory of Health Researches: 124(1994-1996)

Abstract:
Varying volumes of crude extract (0.5ml. 1.0 ml, 1.5ml, 2.0ml, 2.5ml and 3.0ml) of bruised cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) were orally administered once daily for 10 days to Swiss ICR strong mice in their first trimester of pregnancy. None of the mice showed signs of abortion.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94509

Identification of superior cashew trees from a seedling population


dela Cruz, FS; Fletcher, RJ
Philippine Journal of Crop Science 22(2): 83-88(1997)

Abstract:
One hundred and thirty five well-buffered cashew trees derived from seedlings were evaluated for nut yield characters during the 1993 and 1994 fruiting seasons at Cashew Australia, Dimbulah, Far North Queensland. Wide variation in total nut weight, total number of nuts and mean nut weight per tree was observed. Correlation analysis indicates that total nut weight was not significantly correlated with mean nut weight. Total numbe of nuts was negatively correlated with mean nut weight(r=-0.563**).Trees which combined high levels of the different nut yield characters were considered promising. Four superior trees were identified, each tree producing average nut yield of more than 6.0kg/tree/year and mean nut weight/tree/year of more than 6.0g.There trees were recommended as mother trees for clonal propagation.

Availability :
Crops Science Society of the Philippines Secretariat, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of Philippines at Los Baños




NO. 94016

An investigation of the blood cholesterol-lowering effect of Anacardium occidentale Linne (Anacardiaceae) on the hypercholesterolemic mice


Tayco, M
Inventory of Health Researches : 93-94(1997-1998)

Abstract:
The blood cholesterol-lowering activity of Anacardium occidentale Linne (Family Annacardiaceae) was investigated by means of the exhaustive extraction employing solvents of increasing polarity: dichloromethane, dichloromethane-methanol, methanol, and water. Liebermann-Burchard spectrophotometric method was used to determine the extent of cholesterol level reduction. The dichloromethane-methanol extract, which exerted the most prominent hypocholesterolemic activity, was subjected to vacuum chromatography which attempts to separate its active components. Out of the ten fractions collected, three fractions were obtained based on the thin layer chromatography results. Each fraction was tested for its therapeutic activity and was compared to a hypolipidemic standard, fenofibrate. The bioassay showed that fractions II and III exhibited the most effective blood cholesterol-lowering action, by as much as 65% and 70% respectively. These fractions were even more effective in reducing blood cholesterol level compared to fenofibrate, the percentage decrease in cholesterol concentration being only 55.32%. These significant results were confirmed by the statistical analysis (One-way ANOVA). As manifested in the TLC plate, fraction II contained three components while fraction III had only one constituent. However, isolation of thee components, purification and further toxicity tests were not performed due to a very limited allotted time.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development; Department of Science and Technology




NO. 94283

Assay on the anti-fungal property of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid


de Mata, MLD; Mamaril, VR
DA Research Highlights : 10(1995-1996)

Abstract:
An assay investigation was undertaken to determine the antifungal property of cashew but shell liquid (CNSL). Direct heating and solvent extraction (Diethyl ether) were used in obtaining CNSL from the cashew nut shells. Cashew nuts were collected from Palawan and Antipolo. The yield from Palawan cashew nutsranged from 12.5% to 18% while the Antipolo nuts ranged from 10% to 1%. The extracts were tested against six plants pathogens, namely:Alternaria brassicola, Fusarium moniliforme, Curvularia lunata, Helmintosphorium maydis, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes and Trichochonis padwicki. Findings showed that CNSL has antifungal property and it could only be extracted with the use of a solvent. The extracted CNSL was also subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC). Five components wer isolated and further assayed against the previously used test organisms. Component B was found to possess the antifungal property of CNSL. This component is probably anacardic acid.

Availability :
Ilocos Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Mariano Marcos State University




NO. 93720

Fertilizer trial of cashew in Carranglan, Nueva Ecija


Mendoza, VB
Sylvatrop 1: 30-33(1976)

Abstract:
Fertilization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) once a year for two years resulted in an increase in diameter and height growth. The 100 to 150 kg per hectare of complete (14-14-14) commercial fertilizer was sufficient to significantly increased diameter and height growth after 3 years. First fertilizer application was done one month after outplanting and the second or last was done one year after. Although survival was high for the fertilized, it was not significantly higher than that of the control.

Availability :
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; Forestry Campus




NO. 95304

Soil moisture and planting distance as factors affecting growth and yield of two mungbean varieties under orchard-based cropping system


Agustin, MB; Chaiyapantu, S
Legume Research and Development Highlights; Research Office; Research, Extension and Training; Central Luzon State University (CLSU); Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines; 1994; pp.131-139

Abstract:
The study was conducted under seven-year old cashew plantation aimed to:1) compare the performance of two mungbean varieties under orchard-based cropping system;2) evaluate the agronomic and yield characteristics of two mungbean varieties with varying planting distance and soil moisture content;and 3) evaluate the interaction effect of soil moisture content and planting distance of two mungbean varieties under orchard-based cropping system.|The grain yield of Taiwan Green variety planted at 25 cm between rows was comparable with Patig variety planted at 25 and 50 cm between rows. Maintaining the soil moisture at 41-60% outyielded the two levels of soil moisture, the 10-25 and 26-40% soil moisture content.|Patig variety was found superior over Taiwan Green in terms of plant height, number of seeds per pod, root lenght and grain yield. Patig has longer maturity and days flowering compared to Taiwan Green.|Soil moisture content significantly influenced the plant height, number of seeds per pod, weight of 1000 seeds, root lenght and yield. Plants with closer irrigation frequency (41-60% soil moisture content) were taller than plants which recieved lesser frequency of irrigation (10-25 and 26-40% MC).

Availability :
Forest Products Research and Development Institute, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños




NO. 37078

The response to topworking of unproductive old-bearing cashew trees


Gongora, S
Western Luzon Agricultural College;San Marcelino;Zambales

RETRES Research Abstracts;WLA;1985;10p;MISD;PCARRD

Abstract:
Two separate test on the effect of three heights of stump (50, 100 and 150 cm) and three methods of topworking (bark, cleft and side grafting) were undertaken to determine the response of unproductive and old-bearing cashew trees. Tested trees responded very satisfactory to the stump heights in topworking. At 30 and 90 days after grafting, 100 cm high stump (Treatment 2) obtained the highest mean of 92.67 and 94%, respectively. There were no significant differences among treatment means. The quarterly rate of scion diameter of the 150 high stump (Treatment 3) gave the highest mean of 1.13 cm while Treatments 1 (50 cm high stump) and 2 had a mean of 1.08 and 1.06 cm, respectively. However, there was no significant difference among the three treatments. Treatment 1 was the cheapest and was more accessible to cutting and was easier to graft due to lower height of stumps. In another experiment, the trees responded well to the three methods of topworking at 30 days after grafting. Cleft grafting was most successful with a mean of 86.67% followed by side grafting and bark grafting with 76.62 and 76%, respectively. At 90 days after grafting, cleft grafting was also highest at a mean of 98% while the trees failed to survive with bark and side grafting. The rate of diameter per scion was recorded at 1.21 cm. Early flowering was observed 5 months after grafting. Continued flowering and fruiting was noted during the first and second year of the project.

Availability :
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development Library




NO. 25879

Effect of Anacardium Occidentale L. On blood glucose level of type II diabetic rats.


Mary, K; Hamdan, N; Zolkepli, O
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia; Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Towards Modernisation of Research and Technology in Herbal Industries; Proceedings of the Seminar on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants; 24-25 July 2001; p147

Abstract:
The hypoglycaemic effect of Anacardium occidentale L. Leaf and vein aqueous extract was evaluated in type II diabetic rats. The rats were treated with these extracts (5,50 and 500 mg/kg) which were incorporated into the drinking water given daily for 6 weeks.Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 1.5 g/kg of glucose challenge was then performed to monitor the blood glucose level. The results did not show any improvement in the glucose toleremce even after 6 weeks treatment . This indicates that Anacardium occidentale L. Leaf and vein aqueous extractt at 5,50 and 500 mg/kg did not have hypoglycaemic effect on type II diabetic rats. However, the highest dose of the leaf extract was able to delay the glucose uptake into the blood by 46.81%, 33.02% and 42.01% after 1,3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The blood glucose concentration in the OGTT to the right i.e. about 1 hour later compared to before treatment. This may be due to the inhibition fo glucose transport into the blood stream. Hence this opens the oportunity for new study on the mechanism of action of Anacardium occidentale L. Leaf aqueous extract on glucose regulation.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 25925

Composition, Cytotoxic and Larvicidal Properties of Essential Oil of Anacardium occidentale L.


Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap; Tian, HP; Gwendoline, CLE; Mawardi, R; Abdul Manaf, A; Faujan, A
Department of Chemistry; Universiti Putra Malaysia; 43400 UPM Serdang; Selangor

Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants Vol. 2(1): 11-12(2001)

Abstract:
Leaf and bark of Anacardium occidentale are used medicinally. The chemical components of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Anacardium occidentale L. has been examined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC- MS). Ten components were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.1 %) and sesquiterpene (15.7 %) formed the main chemical groups of the oil. The major constituents of the oil were trans-(-ocimene (76.0 %), (-copaene (4.8 %), (- cadinene (3.3 %), cis-ocimene (2.1 %) and (-caryophyllene (1.9 %). The oil was tested for cytotoxic and larvicidal properties.

Availability :
Forest Research Institute Malaysia




NO. 96460

Biological study of tea mosquito bug, Helopellis sp. (Miridae hemiptera) on cashew


Adoro, LC; Fernandez, PC
Ramon Magsaysay Technological University (RMTU) Research Journal (1): 25-30 (2002)

Abstract:
The biology of tea mosquitobug, Helopeltis sp. under laboratory conditions was studied from November 1997 to May 1999. Results showed that the total developmental period ranged from 12-20 days with an average o 178 days. Incubation period ranged from 5-7 days with an average of 5.68 days. Longevity of the male ranged from 1-8 days while the femalelinved from 1-22 days. A single female laid from 6-133 eggs with an average of 37. Aside from cashew, the insect was found to feed on Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica, Ipomoea batatas, and Hamelia patens.

Availability :
Ramon Magsaysay Technological University (RMTU) Library; Iba, Zambales, Philippines




NO. 96562

Rehabilitation techniques for century old bearing cashew trees in Zambales


Farin, EN; Marinas, EDLR; Domingo, FA; Tabua, TA
Proceedings of the Agency In-house Review of Completed and Ongoing R & D Projects. Ramon Magsaysay Technological University, Iba, Zambales (2003); (no pagination)

Abstract:
The study aims to improve the productivity of old-bearing cashew through fertilizer application, pruning and weed control. The treatments used were: T1 (control), T2 (pruning only), T3 fertilizer application only), T4 (fertilizer application and pruning). Initial results revealed that fertilizer application regardless of the amount and pruning are effective in rejuvenating old-bearing cashew trees. Although percent flowering was lower in CY 2003 compared to CY 2002, the fruitset was higher. fertilizer application and pruning significantly improved flowering and fruit setting. The number of nuts per quadrant was not affected by fertilizer and pruning.

Availability :
One-Stop-Information-Shop, Central Luzon Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium, Central Luzon State University




NO. 96615

Collection and evaluation of cultivars/strains of cashew under Palawan condition


Torres, NA; Caliwag, ES; Caliwag, CM; Eleazar, LB
Plant Industry Bulletin 9 (4): 78-91 (1994)

Abstract:
The study on the collection and evaluation of strains/cultivars of cashew under Palawan condition, was started in November, 1987 at the Southern Tagalog Agricultural Research Center-Research Outreach Station for Hillyland Development (STIARC-ROS) formerly, Palawan Agricultural Experiment Station, Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City. The trial on cashew consisted of 21 cultivars from different sources. Entry No. 1 (Mitra) was significantly he highest yielder in terms of nut, appleand kernel. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between some accessions at 5 and 1% levels.l

Availability :
Bureau of Plant Industry-Los Baños National Crop Research and Development Center (BPI-LBNCRDC), Reading Room; Economic Garden, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines




NO. 14418

Studies on fruit growth and development of some cashew nut varieties in eastern region
Kan suksa kan charoen lae phatthanakan khong phon mamuang-himmaphan bang phan nai phak tawanok

Bamrungkit, A; Hiranpradit, H; Tongtao, S; Khunchanthuk, P; Rotsamai, S; Nok-insi, S
Chanthaburi Horticulture Research Centre;Thailand

Annual Research Report 1988;Chanthaburi Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p.324-327

Abstract:
Growth and development of nut , apple and kernel were recorded selected cashew nut varieties.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 96359

Cashew nut processing


Fontanilla, IS
Sustainable Livelihood Options: An information Kit, Upland Ecosystems; Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City; Department of Environment and Natural Resources; 1997; pp. 340-350

Abstract:
Cashew is a potential crop for reforestation and can withstand drought. It can even grow in poor soil. However, the best soil is light textured, deep, friable and well-drained that allows undisturbed root penetration.|Cashew nut processing has encouraged farmers to establish and develop cashew plantations. Cashew nuts are commonly sold in markets and supermarkets, either on wholesale or consignment basis.

Availability :
Technology Transfer and Information Division Department of Environment and Natural Resources




NO. 14124

Pests of cashew nut in Thailand
Malaeng satru mamuang-himmaphan nai prathetthai

Chayophat, P; Phunchaisi, S; Chunram, S; Thongphan, C
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Warasan Kita Lae Sattawawitthaya(Journal of Entomology and Zoology) 11(3): 174-177(1989)

Abstract:
A list of the scientific names of 45 insect pests of chashew nut and 4 predators of these insects were presented.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14174

Cashew nut breeding for quality and yield
Kan phasom phan mamuang-himmaphan phua khunnnaphap lae phon phalit

Fuangchan, S; Yimsawat, T; Chindaprasoet, S; Inthaphanit, S
Department of Horticulture;Khon Kaen University;Thailand

Kaen Kaset(Khon Kaen Agricultural Journal) 20(3)L144-152(1992)

Abstract:
Evaluating the performance of cashew nut hybrids from 136 plants showed that the hybrid plants flowered and set fruit at 1-3 year old. The performance of hybrid showed the superiority over percentage of 31.70-33.25%; 176-196 kernels/lb with large size, high specific gravity, good shape with regular size, high skin and white color. Three promising hybrids were selected for further evaluation (AUTHORS' ABSTRACT)

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14384

Germplasm collection of cashew nut
Kan ruapruam phaophan mamuang-himmaphan

Anuphan, P; Chaikiattiyot, S; Nopphakhunwong, U; Choeichum, P; Surai, S; Maniphancharoen, C
Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Centre;Thailand

Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand; p.17-28

Abstract:
Introduction and evaluation of 105 introduced cashew nut germplasm from India, Kenya, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Brazil and Indonesia have been carried out in Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Nakhon Phanom Horticulture Experiment Station and Northeast Regional Agricltural Office in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand. Selected lines yielded 35.10-44.45 kg/plant compared to 27.87 and 38.79 kg/plant of the standard cashew cultivars.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14385

Effectiveness of certain chemicals against anthracnose of cashew fruit
Prasitthiphap khong san khemi khuapkhum rok anthracnose khong phon mamuang- himmaphan

Satchaphong, S; Nuwongsi, C; Wichitranon, S; Anuphan, P
Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p.58-68

Abstract:
Mancozeb was found to be effective in controlling antracnose on cashew nut.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14386

Pesticide development of cashew nut shell liquid
Kan phatthana kan phalit san kha malaeng chak nammman pluak malet mamuang- himmaphan

Sinchaisi, P; Chantharathat, C; Akkharawetsaphong, P; Phamplum, P; Praphawat, M; Anuphan, P
Agriculture Chemical Division, Depatment of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture; Thailand; p 75-76

Abstract:
Chemical compounds in cashew nut shell oil which are effective in controlling rice insect pests (Nilaparvata lugens, Nephotettic virescens, Sogatella furcifera and Recillia dorsalis), fruitfly (Dacus dorsalis), alternaria leaf blight of sunflower (Alternaria zinniae), leaf blight of corn (Helminthospori maydis), leaf spot of soy bean (Xanthomonas campestris) are identified as anacardic acid, carnadanol, 2-methyl-cardol and cardol.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14387

Efficiency of some insecticides to control the mosquito bug (Helopeltis spp.) on cashew
Prasitthiphap khong san kha malaeng bang chanit to muan-yung bon mamuang- himmaphan

Chayophat, P; Anuphan, P; Satchaphong, S; Chaiwat, P; Chayophat, T; Thongphan, C
Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p.77-85

Abstract:
Monocrotophos at the rate of 12 gm a.i. in 20 l of water or 17 gm a.i. in 20 l water are effective against mosquito bug on cashew nut.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14388

Effect of storage time of cashew nut on the efficiency of testa peeling
Ayu kan kep raksa malet mamuang-himmaphan to prasitthaphap nai kan lok yua hum malet nua nai

Akkharawetsaphong, P; Phasuwitthayakun, S; Weturai, S; Anuphan, P; Rattanakoson, P
Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p. 86-90

Abstract:
Testa pelling of cashew nuts was most effective in seeds storage for 0-3 months.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14389

Study on temperature and time for peeling of cashew testa by hot air oven
Suksa unnnahaphum lae raya wela nai kan lok yua hum malet nai mamuang- himmaphan doi chai tu op faifa

Akkharawetsaphong, P; Phasuwitthayakun, S; Bunthawi, S; Sinchaisi, P; Weturai, S; Anuphan, P; Rattanakoson, P
Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p.105-123

Abstract:
The time of 30-45 minutes are optimum to dry cashew seeds at 50-100 degree Celsius in the oven for the removal of cashew testa.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14393

Improvement of cashew trees damaged by mosquito bugs Helopeltis spp.
Kan prapprung ton mamuang-himmaphan thi siahai nuang chak muan yung

Chayophat, P; Thongphan, C; Chayophat, T; Khomsan, A
Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre;Thailand

Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p.296

Abstract:
Prunning and application of monochrotophos insecticide were effectively used in improvement of cashew trees damaged by mosquito bugs

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14394

Species and fluctuation of insect pests on various varieties of cashew
Kan suksa cchanit lae pariman malaeng nai mamuang-himmaphan phan tnag tang

Chayophat, P; Satchaphong, S; Chayophat, T; Chatwat, P
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture; Bangkok, Thailand

Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p.371-372

Abstract:
Seasonal variation of insect pests was reported.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14395

Study on rate of benalaxyl for control root and foot rot of cashew's seedling caused by Phytophthora parasitica
Suksa attra suan khong benalaxyl nai kan phon pongkan kamchat rok khon lae rak nao khong kla mamuang-himmaphan thi koet chak chua ra Phytophthora parasitica

Satchaphong, S; Nuwongsi, C; Weturai, S
Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre;Thailand

Annual Research Report 1991;Si Sa Ket Horticulture Research Centre; Department of Agriculture;Thailand;p.376-378

Abstract:
Benalaxyl at the rate of 40g in 20 l of water was effective against root and foot rotin cashew nut.

Availability :
Horticultural Research Institute Library, Department of Agriculture




NO. 14730

Verification varietal yield trial of commercial variety and selected clones of cashew


Anupunt, P
Sisaket Horticultural Research Centre; Institute of Horticultural Research; Department of Ahriculture; Si Sa Ket 33000; Thailand

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 27

Abstract:
Varietal yield trial of verified varieties released by Thai DOA; SK 60-1 and SK 60-2 Composite seed variety; SK-A, Sirichai 25 (released by Mah Voon Krong (MB) Company) and the local variety were conducted in 1987. The results of nut weight produced at the third year plants showed that SK 60-1 had the highest nut weight (2.6 Kg/tree). For the kernel size, all of them were in grade 3 except SK-a and local varieties. SK 60-1 and SK 60-2 also have high sunken percentage which were greater than 70% whereas commercial varieties from MB Company and local variety were lower than 50%. However, this is the first year of harvesting, it could not be concluded that which one is the best variety.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14731

Cashew varietal studies and selection in Northeast Thailand


Anupun, P
Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Centre; Institute of Horticultural Research; Department of Agriculture; Si Sa Ket 33000; Thailand

International symposium on tropical fruits; Theme: Frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstract; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p. 28

Abstract:
Cashew varietal study and selection were undertaken to evaluate varieties which have high yielding and good nut quality and suitable for growing in the Northeast of Thailand. Nut production and growth development were recorede from three cashew plantations for 11 years. Ten types of cashew were selected and two of them, SK5-1 and SK5-10 were released as certified varieties named Sisaket 60-1 and Sisaket 60-2 respectively in 1987. These varieties have good nut yielding with large nut and dernel size in grade 3 of the world market, high sunken seed and shelling percentage. All of these selected types were used as mother clones for seed garden establishment to produce a Composite seed varity, named as Si Sa Ket- A.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14883

Jam from cashew apples: mix jam


Trongpanich, K & Hiraza, C
Institute of Food Reasearch and Product Development; Kasetsart University; Thailand.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits-Theme: frontier on tropical fruit research; working abstract; International Society for Horticultural Science; May 20-24, 1991; Pattaya; Thailand. p.238

Abstract:
The comkkposition of miwed jam from cashew apple and pineapple were studies. It was found that with the ratio of cashew apple:pineapple = 1.5:2 got the highest consumer preference. However, the pection from the cashew apple itself was not enough to provide good gel in the jam. Additions of 0.4% both pectin and citric acid enhanced gel forming and taste. From sensory evaluation, it was found that most Thai testers liked jam to be sour with the pH should not more than 3. The protein in the jam mostly came from cashew apple which may cause browning problem in the product.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14815

Testing of planting methods of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.)


Anupunt, P; Kumcha, U; Patthong, P; Cheaychum, P & Koravis, C
Si Sa Ket Horticultural Research Centre; Department of Agriculture; Si Sa Ket 33000; Thailand.

International Symposium on Tropical Fruits Theme: frontier in tropical fruit research; working abstracts; International Society for horticultural Science; 20-24 May 1991; Pattaya; Thailand; p. 149.

Abstract:
Suitable planting methods for cashew growing in the Northeast and Southern Thailand have been investigated during 1987-1991 at Sisaket Horticultural Research Centre (HRC), Nong Khai Experiment Horticulture Station (EHS), Surat Thani HRC and Trang ERS. Three planting methods; growing by Composite SK-A seed, side veneer grafting with SK 60-1 onto KS 22-4 stock in the field and growing of SK 60-1 grafted seedling were compared for cashew growth rate and yielding. At the forth year results, it was found that planting methods were significantly affected on cashew growth rate and yield. Grafted plants and SK-a seed grown plants were superior to side grafted plants.

Availability :
Kasetsart University, Central Library




NO. 14941

Use of the Weaver Ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (F.) to Control the Mosquito Bugs, Helopeltic spp.


Parnpen Chayopas; Thaveesak Chayopas; Intawat Burikam & Jiraporn Tongpand
Industrial Horticultural Crops; Entomology Research Group; Division of Eutomology and Zoology; Depatment of Agriculture; Bangkok

Thai Journal Of Agricultural Science

Abstract:
By placing the nests of Oecophylla smaragdina (F.) in the cashew trees at the beginning of new young shoots. They can protect some shoots from damage by the mosquito bug, Helopeltis spp. The group of 9 cashew trees that were associated with ant nests show a statistically significant difference with the lower in number of 2.09 damaged shoots while there were 4.38 damaged shoots in the group of 9 cashew trees which had no ants. The equation of expected numbers of workers (Y) by using the weight of ant nests (x) was Y = 231085 + 14.65 x. The longevity of ant nests in cashew trees was about 5 months when we let them free to find food. The percentage of damaged shoots on those trees was 16.93% while there was 45.91% on the trees that had no ants. The equation of percentage of damaged shoots (Y) and the weight of ant nests was Y = 38.38-0.102x.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 14951

Using European Honey Bee for the Pollination of Cashew, Anacardium occidentales L.


Somnuk Boongird; Tasanee Kirithaweep
Bee Research and Industrial Entomology Group Entomology & Zoology Division

The 10 th Insect and Pest Annual Conference; Entomology and Zoology Div; Department of Agriculture; 24-25 June 1996. Prachuap Khirikhan. p.408

Abstract:
The floral biology and pollination of cashew, Anacardium occidentales L. have been investigated, including introduciton of European honey bee and Indian honey bee colonies was placed into cashew plantation at Bothong district Cholburi province in 1995-1996. It was found that each panicle of cashew composed of male and hermaphroditic flowers, and sex varatio within a panicle was highly varied in number. The hermaphroditic flower of cashew has a tendency to be pollinated by crossing with another dehisced anther form collceting and tripping insect pollinators. The number of visiting insect pollinators on cashew flowers was different from location to location depending on environmental surroundings where the local insect pollinators can survive nearby. The 30 colonies of Apis mellifera were set the pollen trap during cashew blossom. The highest percentage of cashew pollen loads was 96.67% of total pollen loads collected at 12.00-13.00 hr. but some colonies had none of cashew pollen loads. The rate of increasing weight of hive was 4.50 + 2.44 kg/hive/14 days. In case of Apis cerana colonies after placing in cashew orchard had absconded within 14 days of introducing. Using European honey bee colonies for pollinating cashew flower, it should be added more colony that that recommendation used in an attactive flower species.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15694

Studies on food values in cashew apples.


Phromsattha, R.; Suwannet, A.; Chaidammalat, S.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 12: 93-94(1987)

Abstract:
Ripened Cashew Apples of 15 varieties were analysed for their food nutrition and other chemical contents. The apples had averaged carbohydrate 69.23%, protein 4.44%, fat 2.51%, ash 2.42%, crude fiber 3.55%, moisture 17.86%, water content 87.77%, vitamin C 289.01 mg ascorbic acid/100 ml juice, Pectic acid 0.2%, titratable acidity 46.03 ml 0.1 N. NaOH/100 ml juice, total solid 9.56%, sugar 12.41 Brix, sodium 375.57 ppm, potassium 0.869, phosphorus 0.105%, calcium 0.014%, magnesium 0.091%, copper 9.41 ppm, iron 41.07 ppm, manganese 7.77 ppm., sulfur 0.060%, and nitrogen 0.711%. Red apples of S.K. 5-10, S.K. 15-1, S.K. 6-22 and S.K. 18.11 varieties were found 15 contain high food value. Varieties S.K. 15-1 and S.K. 6-22 had high level of trace elements S.K. 18-12 high vitamin C.S.K. 5-10 and Brazil varieties high sugar.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 15891

The studies of shell decortication, peeling of skin and oil extraction from cashew nuts.


Haruthaithanasan, V.; Leelawatcharamas, V.; Boon-Long, N.
Thai Abstracts Science and Technology. 10: 110(1985)

Abstract:
The result of the studies on the size of cashew nuts, the thickness of the shell, decortication of shell, peeling of skin and extraction of oil from cashew nuts revealed that the cashew nuts could be graded into 4 sizes, i.e. super - large, medium and small. The thickness of shell of each size of Cashew nuts is in the same range from 0.247-0.317 cm. And the medium nuts have steeper angle than the other size nuts. Drying of the cashew nuts in the oven at the temperature 120-130 (C of 20-30 minutes could easily decorticate shell without damaging the quality of the kernels inside the nuts. Comparing between the dry-heat treatment and the moist-heat treatment and the moist-heat treatment in peeling the skin, it was found that the dry-heat treatment had more advantage than the moist-heat treatment. The optimum temperature and the time of the dry-heat treatment in peeling of the skin without damaging the quality of the kernels in about 80-90(C for 3-4 minutes. In extraction of the oil from the shell of the cashew nuts, it was found that by frying in cashew nut shell liquid oil bath, large amount of oil was obtained than those by using the hydraulic ress method. The optimum temerature and the time in extraction of oil using oil bath method must be at 180(C for 10 minutes. This treatment has many benefits such as easy decortication of the shell, obtain good quality of the kernel and could extract the oil about 20 percent by weight of the cashew nuts.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16143

Cashew Apple Wine : 1 Studies of the Conditions in Cashew Apple Wine Making


Poosaran, N.; Thammaratwasik, P.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.356.

Abstract:
Studies of the conditions in cashew apple wine making by using the ratio of cashew apple to water 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10, it was found that the rate of fermentation varied from high to low depending to the dilution, although the initial total soluble solid was between 21.4-21.90 Brix. The cashew apple wine has pH 3.1-3.4 total acidity 0.322- 0.348% and volatile acid 0.004-0.024%. The adding of NH4 H2 PO4 will slow down the rate of fermentation when compares to (NH4 )2 HPO4¯ The bitterness flavour of wine can be reduced by adding gelatin concentrating 0.015%. The cashew apple wine is also evaluated by taste panels and is was found that the wine from dilution 1:8 is accepted by most taste panels.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16184

Feasibility Study to Alleviate Effects of Soil Constrants On Cashew Grown at Klong Hoi Khong (Songkhla)


Sdoodee, S.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.408-409.

Abstract:
Preliminary study to alleviate soil constraints at Klong Hoi Knong (KHK), an experiment was set up in glasshouse at Prince of Songkhla University. KHK soil (Visai (vi) series, Classified as Oxic Plinthaquults by USDA-1970) and termite-mould soil form KHK were collected in plywood boxes (25x25x100 cm3) by using intact cores. Twelve boxes were used and arranged in completely randomized design with 4 treatments (I. fertile soil, 2. Deep ripping 70 cm depth with the application of 100 g lime plus 1000 g air-dried compost, 3. KHK soil and 4. Termite-mould soil) and 3 replications. Three- month old grafted cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) seedling (CV. SK 60-1) was grown in each box. They were adequately daily watered for I wk after transplanting, then water was withheld for 30 d. During water-withholding period, soil surface was covered with a plastic sheet to avoid water loss through evaporation. The effects of soil physical and soil chemical limitations on plant responses were evaluated. It was found that plant growth under deep ripping with application of lime and compost was significantly higher than those in KHK soil and termite-mould soil. Besides, plant growth in termite-mould soil was limited with nutrient deficiency symptom, this was due to high exchangeable Na and high pH.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16200

Callus Induction from Young Leaves and Stem Explants of Cashew Nut; Anacardium Accidentale


Te-chato, S.; Wanachit, W.; Lim, M.; Aengyong, Wa.; Hemtanon, Su.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.426.

Abstract:
Young leaves and stem explants of cashew produced callus the best when cultured in B5 medium (1963) supplemented with both NAA and BA at concentration of 1 mg/l. For microplant propagation, apical shoots and lateral shoot were good explants. The explants cultured in modified MS medium with BA 20 mg/l, yielded multi-shoot formation. The Excision of each shoot when transferred to the medium with low concentration of BA (1 ?M) would elongate and could be transferred to soil.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 16236

Study on Diseases of Cashew (Anacadium occidentale Linn.) the Southern


Kritsaneepaiboon, W.; Petcharat, V.; Lim, S.; Chuenchitt, Sa.
Prince of Songkhla university research abstracts. 1987-1992. P.459.

Abstract:
Samples of cashew diseases were collected from 5 provinces of Southern Thailand: Songkhla, Pattani, Trang, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Phuket. Laboratory and field trials were held at the Department of Pest Management. Only one disease, Pythium sp. Post- emergence damping/off, was found in seedling stage. In seedling stage (2-8 month), angular leaf spot caused by Pestalotia sp. was found. In mature cashew, leaf blight, leaf spot, cepha-leuros leaf spot, die back, inflorescence blight and dry rot of immature nut were found.

Availability :
Thai National Documentation Centre, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research




NO. 70114

The soil for cashew cultivation in Quang Nam-Da Nang province
Dat trong Dao lon hot o Quang Nam-Da Nang

Ngo Van Phu
Faculty of Biology;Hanoi University;Vietnam

Cong trinh nghien cuu khoa Sinh vat [Scientific Studies of the Faculty of Biology];Hanoi;1986;p122-129

Abstract:
After an investigation and analysis of the soil in Quang Nam-Da Nang province, the author has concluded the soil in Quang Nam-Da Nang province suited the growth cashew specially the sandy soil of seashore.

Availability :
Faculty of Biology Library, Hanoi Natural Science University




NO. 70115

Some growth and nutrition characteristics of Cashew seedings (Anacardium occidentale L.) saplings
Mot so dac tinh sinh truong va dinh duong cua cay con Dao lon hot (Anacardium occidentale L.)

Ha Duy Thu
Faculty of Biology Hanoi University;Vietnam

Cong trinh nghien cuu Khoa hoc khoa Sinh vat [Scientific Studies of the Faculty of Biology];Hanoi;1986;p222-226

Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to explore the growth and development characteristics of Cashew seedlings for their care and planting. Through the experiment of sowing its seeds in plastic bags of Sandy soil in Dien Nam (Quang Nam-Da Nang) in July 1984 and in plastic bags of normal soil in Hanoi in June 1984, the author has concluded that: After sowing the seeds for one month, the growth of the seedlings were very good and they could be strains-planted to the holes. The growth of its seedling in sandy soil was better than in normal.

Availability :
Faculty of Biology Library, Hanoi Natural Science University




NO. 70186

Remarks on climatic data from some meteorological stations in southern Vietnam in view of cashew cultivation
Nhan dinh ve khi hau cua mot so tram phia nam Viet Nam doi voi Dao lon hot

Vu Cong Quy
Faculty of Biology; Hanoi University; Vietnam

Cong trinh nghien cuu khoa Sinh vat [Scientific Studies of the Faculty of Biology of the Hanoi University]; Hanoi; 1986; p10-14

Abstract:
In order to set up the scientific basis for cultivation of cashew in some areas, the author has summed up data on climate from 10 Meteorological Stations in the South of Vietnam during 10 years (even more than 30 years in some cases). After analysing these materials, the author has concluded that the regions are similar to that of cashew planting regions around the world.

Availability :
Faculty of Biology Library, Hanoi Natural Science University




NO. 71001

The results of studying pest and diseases of cashew in Vietnam.
Ket qua theo doi sau benh hai cay dieu o mot so tinh phia nam.

Vu Khac Nhuong
Tap chi Bao ve Thuc vat [Journal of Plant Protection] 122(2): 17-21(1992)

Abstract:
The most common and dangerous pests and diseases on the cashew are as follows: Acrocercops syngramma, Helopeltis antonii, Plocaederus ferrugeneus, Cricula trifenestrata, Hypomeces squamosus, Odimum anacardii.

Availability :
Institute of Agricultural Technical Sciences of Vietnam, Library




NO. 72183

Pest and diseases of cashew in Vietnam
Ket qua theo doi benh hai cay dieu o mot so tinh phia nam

Vu Khac Nhuong
Thong tin Bao ve Thuc vat [Plant Protection Bulletin] (2): 17-21 (1992)

Abstract:
In Vietnam, there are about 100,000 ha of cashew trees. It is due to the cashew nut has high content of vitamin and nutritional. It gained a large market in the developed country. The cashew prefers a welldrained soil, warm humid climate and a dry season of 4-6 months during the flowering and fruiting periods. The most common and dangerous pests and diseases on the cashew are as follow: Helopeltis antonii, Acrocerops squamosus, Odium anacardii, Corticium salmonicolor and Coletotrichum gloeosporioides. They cause significant yield loss in Vietnam.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 75973

Propagation of cahew by grafting.
Ky thuat ghep dieu.

Nguyen Thanh Binh
Tap chi Khoa hoc Ky thuat Rau, Hoa, Qua.[Journal of Sciences and Technology of Vegetables Flowers and Fruits] 4: 12-14 (1997).

Abstract:
The study was emphasized on the determination of proper scion which is suitable grafted in term of the age and the size and the method of grafting; The results conducted from the experiments showed that the newly spronted buds were considered to give high percentage of survival and there was no remarkable difference between the methods of grafting. From the above mentioned results, some creteria of scion for grafting and onter conditions have also been recommended of which newly spronted buds of 0.6 cm in diameter and 7- 10 cm long kept in proper peace (cool and sufficient humidity) was given prioty.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73096

Anacardium occidentale L.
Dieu

Vo Van Chi
Nhung cay thuoc thong thuong [The Popular Medical Plants] Dongthap, Dongthap publishing house: 119-121 (1988)

Abstract:
It is big plant and high 8-10m. Its origin is from America and introduced in Vietnam. This plant is planted by seeds on the spring or summer early. Its juice are used for massage, sore throat and vomit forth. Its bark contains tannin catechic (can be treated diarrhoea).

Availability :
The National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73251

Anacardium occidentale
Dao lon hot

Vu Cong Hau; Le Quang Mai; Dinh Van Duc
Trong cay an qua trong vuon [Planting Fruit Trees in the Garden] Hanoi, Agricultural publishing house: 124-130 (1982)

Abstract:
Anacardium occidentale is a popular tree in the South Vietnam but not in the North. This tree is a tropical tree, which can stand a cold. It needs rainfall: 1000 mm/year, dry season lasting 5-7 months. For forest plantation, it can be propagate by seed. If plant for harvest fruit should to raise the young trees.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73342

Anacardium occidentale L.
Dao lon hot

Nguyen Duc Minh
Thuoc chua benh nhiem khuan tu cay co trong nuoc [Medicinal Plants Treating Bacteria Diseases] Hanoi, Medicinal Publ. House; p.77-79 (1995)

Abstract:
Anacardium occidentale L. is cultivated in South Vietnam. Population have used the plant to treat a diarrhoea and pimples. The results of the study on antibacterial capacity showed that it can effect to many bacteria such as: Streptococcus pyogenes, Bact. anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results of clinical study are presented in this section.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73989

The analysis of cashew apple in Vietnam
Nghien cuu thanh phan cua dao lon hot o Vietnam

Nguyen Quang Hao; Tran Qui Thang
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agriculture and Food Industry] (12): 521-522 (1996)

Abstract:
Analysis of organic compounds of the cashew apple juice on 6 provinces in Vietnam showed that it contains major compounds as follows: water 84.1%; general sugar 10.30%; tannin 0.37%; vitamin C 2.49%, general nitrogen 0.17%, ash 0.323%; acid 0.189%, pH 4.03. General sugar contained is almost inverse sugar.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 73766

Anacardium occidentale L.
Dieu

Vo Van Chi
Cay rau lam thuoc [Vegetables for medicine] Dong Thap, Dong Thap Publ. House: 81-82 (1998)

Abstract:
A. occidentale was originated from Brazil. It has been introduced into Vietnam for 200 years and cultivated in Quangnam-Danang, Binhdinh, Dongnai, Tayninh, Kien giang, Angian, Gialai, Kontum provinces. Its seeds (fruits) and oil are used to make cake, or used as edible fruit. The stalk of fruit is used as vegetable or medicine to treat diarrhoea.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78522

Some main insect & months damaging cashew nuts after harvest in Long An, Binh Duong, Dong Nai province in dry season 1999
1 so sau mot chinh hai hat dieu tai cac tinh Long An, Binh Duong & Dong Nai trong mua kho 1999

Nguyen Thi Chat; Tran Xuan Kinh
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham [Agriculture and food industry] 5: 194-196 (2000).

Abstract:
By the standard method of investigation & test in plant protection there were 10 species of insects & months damaging cashew nuts after harvest. The percentage of damaged cashew nuts varied 1.5-2.0% after peeling their coats. In this paper the authors have set forth measures to control them

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 78622

Some main insect & months damaging cashew nuts after harvest in Long An, Binh Duong, Dong Nai province in dry season 1999
1 so sau mot chinh hai hat dieu tai cac tinh Long An, Binh Duong & Dong Nai trong mua kho 1999

Nguyen Thi Chat; Tran Xuan Kinh
Nong nghiep cong nghiep thuc pham [Agriculture and food industry] 5: 194-196 (2000).

Abstract:
By the standard method of investigation & test in plant protection there were 10 species of insects & months damaging cashew nuts after harvest. The percentage of damaged cashew nuts varied 1.5-2.0% after peeling their coats. In this paper the authors have set forth measures to control them

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam




NO. 74157

Storage and treatment of cashew apple and cashew apple as feed for ruminant.
Nghien cuu bao quan, che bien qua dieu, ba dieu lam thuc an cho gia suc.

La Van Kinh
Tap chi Nong nghiep va Cong nghiep Thuc pham [Journal of Agreculture and Food Industry] (1997)

Abstract:
The aims of this study were to examine the possibility of using whole cashew apple (CA) and cashew apple waste (CAW) with each product were compared as follows: 100% CA (or CAW), 90% CA (or CAW) + 10% poultry litter (PL). 80% CA (or CAW) + 20% PL and 70% CA (or CAW) + 30% PL based fresh weight. It is concluded that CA or CAW can be preserved for long term use by anaerobia ensiling alone or with 10% poultry litter.

Availability :
National Library of Vietnam