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Ditemukan 38 spesies dibawah kategori : Biofuel

Aleurites moluccana
Inggris : Candlenut tree, Indian walnut, lumbang tree
Indonesia : kemiri

Large, evergreen, monoecious tree, 10-40 m tall, with heavy, irregular, large-leafed crown appearing whitish or frosted from a distance due to a cover of white stellate hairs especially on young parts; stem diameter up to 1.5 m, bark grey, rather rough with lenticels. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules small, early caducous; petiole up to 30 cm long, bearing a pair of small, green-brown glands at the top on the upper side; blade in young trees and suckers subcircular in outline, up to 30 cm in diameter, with a cordate base and 3-5 triangular lobes; blade in adult trees ovate-triangular or ovate-oblong, 12-23 cm x 6-12 cm, margin entire or slightly sinuate, apex pointed, curved and drooping, dark green with a silvery gloss. Inflorescence thyrsoid, terminal or upper-axillary, 10-20 cm long; flowers unisexual, on a small pedicel, white, female flowers terminating the ultimate branchlets of the cymes, male flowers much more numerous, smaller, opening earlier, arranged around the female flowers in bunches; calyx 2-3-lobed at anthesis; petals 5, lanceolate, 6-7 mm long in male flowers, 9-10 mm in female ones; disk glands 5; male flowers with 10-20 stamens, arranged in 3-4 series, the outer ones free, the inner ones connate; female flowers with 2-4-locular, tomentose ovary and 2-4, deeply bipartite styles. Fruit drupaceous, laterally compressed, ovoid-globose and 2-seeded or semiglobose and 1-seeded, 5-6 cm x 4-7 cm, tomentose, indehiscent, olive-green with whitish flesh. Seed compressed-globose, up to 3 cm x 3 cm; endocarp thick, bony, rough; albumen thick, rich in oil.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim : Jatropha moluccana L. (1753), Aleurites triloba J.R. & G. Forst. (1776), Juglans camirium Lour. (1790).

Anacardium accidentale L.
Inggris : cashew
Indonesia : jambu monyet

Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim :

Arachis hypogea L.
Inggris : Groundnut, peanut
Indonesia : kacang tanah

Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim :

Borassus flabellifer L.
Inggris : Toddy palm, wine palm, palmyra palm
Indonesia : lontar

Palem yang mempunyai batangtunggal, dapat mencapai tinggi 30 m ini berbatang kasap, agak kehitam-hitaman, dengan penebalan sisa pelepah daun di bagian bawah. Tajuknya rimbun dan membulat, daun-daun tuanya terkulai tetapi tetap melekat di ujung batang. Pelepah pendek, agak jingga, bercelah dipangkal, berijuk. Pelepah dan tangkai daun tepinya berduri hitam tidak teratur. Daun seperti kipas, bundar, kaku, bercangap menjari, hijau keabu-abuan. Perbungaan berumah dua, menerobos celah pelepah, menggantung. Bunga betinanya kadang-kadang bercabang sedang bunga jantan bercabang banyak. Bunga berwama putih susu, berkelompok, tertanam pada tongkolnya. Buah agak bulat, bergaris tengah 7 - 20 cm, ungu tua sampai hitam, pucuknya kekuningan. Buah berisi 3 bakal biji. Daging buah muda warna putih kaca/transparan, daging buah dewasa/tua warna kuning kemudian berubah menjadi serabut.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim : Borassus flabelliformis L. (1774).

Calophyllum elatum
Inggris : Bintangor
Indonesia : bintangur.

Evergreen trees, rarely shrubs, up to 40(-60) m tall, with sticky latex either clear or opaque and white, cream or yellow; bole often straight and cylindrical, but occasionally twisted (Calophyllum inophyllum), up to 100(-240) cm in diameter; buttresses usually absent, rarely small, some species with stilt or loop roots; outer bark often with characteristic diamond to boat-shaped fissures becoming confluent with age, smooth, often with a yellowish or ochre tint, inner bark usually thick, soft, firm, fibrous and laminated, pink to red, darkening to brownish on exposure; crown evenly conical to narrowly hemispherical; twigs more or less flattened and angled, usually with naked, often elongate terminal buds. Leaves decussate, simple and entire, leathery, glabrous and petiolate, with closely parallel secondary venation alternating with latex canals which are usually less prominent; stipules absent. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose, branched or simple, (1-)3-many-flowered and usually with small, deciduous bracts. Flowers usually bisexual, but sometimes functionally unisexual, sweetly scented, with perianth of 4-16 tepals in several whorls, usually whitish; stamens numerous, with filaments usually only slightly connate at base and with small basifixed anthers dehiscing by long, lateral slits; pistil 1, with unilocular ovary having a single, basal ovule, one style and often a peltate stigma. Fruit a drupe, with pericarp consisting of an exocarp, a fleshy to fibrous mesocarp and a stony endocarp (stone); outer layer (exocarp + mesocarp) often with large air spaces; stone with a hard layer and often with a spongy layer, containing a single seed. Seed with large cotyledons and radicle pointing to the base of the fruit; endosperm absent. Seedling with cryptocotylar germination (cotyledons remaining enclosed in stone) and short epicotyl; seedling leaves opposite, sometimes first two pairs of leaves pseudo-verticillate or lowest pairs of seedling leaves small and soon falling off.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim :

Carthamus tinctorius L.
Inggris :
Indonesia :

Herba tegak tinggi 0,5 - 1,5 m. Batang permukaannya kasar warna coklat keputihan. Daun kecil, duduk daun melekat di batang atau di ujung batang, bentuk daun bundar telur sampai elip atau lanset. Perbungaan majemuk warna bunga kuning, oranye sampai oranye kemerahan sampai merah darah.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim :

Ceiba pentandra
Inggris : Kapok, (white) silk-cotton tre
Indonesia : kapuk

A deciduous tree, 18-70 m tall, in cultivation usually 18-30 m tall. Roots spreading quite horizontally, 10 m or longer, in the upper 40-80 cm of the soil. Trunk with or without buttresses, forked or unforked, spiny or spineless. Branches whorled, dimorphic, whorls usually of 3 branches, horizontally or ascending. Leaves alternate, digitately compound; petiole 7-25 cm long; leaflets 5-11, oblong-lanceolate, 5-16 cm x 2-4 cm, glabrous. Flowers 2-15 together in axillary fascicles, 5-merous, hanging, actinomorphic, bisexual; pedicel 2.5-5 cm long; calyx campanulate, 1-1.5 cm long, 5-lobed, glabrous outside; petals oblong-obovate, 2.5-4 cm long, united at base, usually dirty white with foetid milky smell, glabrous inside and densely silky outside; stamens united at base in a staminal column, dividing into 5(-6) branches of 3-5 cm length, anthers coiled or reniform; style 2.5-3.5 cm long, constricted at base, obscurely 5-lobed at top. Fruit an ellipsoidal, leathery, pendulous capsule, 7.5-30 cm x 3-7.5 cm, turning brown when ripe, dehiscing with 5 valves (`shells`) or indehiscent, many-seeded. Seed obovoid, 4 -6 mm in diameter, dark brown, embedded in copious, white, pale yellow or grey silky wool (floss). Seedling with epigeal germination.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim : Bombax pentandrum L. (1753), Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. (1824).

Cinnamomum burmanii
Inggris : Cassia, cinnamon
Indonesia : kayu manis

Evergreen or deciduous aromatic shrubs or trees up to 50 m tall; bole usually branchless for up to 30 m, up to 125 cm in diameter, buttresses short or absent; bark surface smooth, rarely fissured, lenticellate, grey-brown to reddish-brown, inner bark granular, pale brown to pink or reddish-brown, with a strong aromatic smell; sapwood whitish to pale yellow. Leaves usually opposite, subopposite, alternate or arranged spirally, simple and entire, with glandular dots and aromatic when crushed, 3-veined, rarely pinnately veined; stipules absent. Inflorescence consisting of axillary or terminal cymose panicles of clusters or umbellules of flowers; flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual (and then polygamous), trimerous; tepals 6, subequal, united into a tube at base, usually hairy; fertile stamens 9, rarely 6, in 3 whorls, stamens in the outer 2 whorls introrse, in the inner whorl extrorse and with a pair of stalked or sessile glands, anthers 4-celled, rarely 2-celled; a fourth (innermost) whorl consists of 3 staminodes with slender filaments and empty anthers; ovary superior, sessile, 1-celled, with a single, pendulous, anatropous ovule, style slender, with a discoid or obscurely 3-lobed stigma. Fruit a 1-seeded berry, globose or ovoid to cylindrical, the basal part surrounded by the enlarged and indurated perianth tube often carrying persistent perianth lobes; pedicel usually not enlarged. Seed without albumen, with a thin testa; cotyledons large, flat, convex and pressed against each other; embryo minute.; - Cinnamomum burmanni. Evergreen shrub or small tree, up to 15 m tall. Leaves subopposite; petiole 0.5-1 cm long; blade oblong-elliptical to lanceolate, 4-14 cm x 1.5-6 cm, pale red and finely hairy when young, when older glabrous and glossy green above, glaucous pruinose below. Inflorescence a short axillary raceme; pedicel 4-12 mm long; perianth 4-5 mm long, after anthesis the lobes tearing off transversely about halfway; stamens about 4 mm long, staminodes 2 mm. Berry ovoid, about 1 cm long.; - Cinnamomum cassia. Evergreen tree up to 18 m tall, strongly aromatic in all its parts; bole up to 70 cm in diameter; bark thick, smooth in young trees, rough in mature trees, grey; twigs brown-hairy. Leaves alternate to nearly opposite; blade oblong-elliptical, 8-20 cm x 4-7.5 cm, dark shiny green. Inflorescence 7.5-18 cm long; pedicel 2-3 mm long; flowers small, about 3 mm long, pubescent, white or whitish yellow; perianth lobes after anthesis tearing off transversely at base. Fruit ovoid to ellipsoidal, 1-1.5 cm long, black to blackish-purple. Seed ovoid, 1 cm long, dark brown with paler stripes.; - Cinnamomum loureirii. Evergreen tree up to 8-10 m tall, similar in shape to Cinnamomum cassia. Leaves opposite or alternate; petiole 12-15 mm long; blade elliptical to oblong, 7.5-12.5 cm x 3-5 cm, acuminate, rigid, green to dull green. Flowers very small, yellow-white. Fruit and seed similar to but smaller than Cinnamomum cassia.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim :

Cinnamomum culitlawan
Inggris :
Indonesia : kulitlawang, kayu teja

Tree with slender branchlets. Leaves opposite; petiole up to 1 cm long; blade lanceolate-oblong to ovate-elliptical, 9-12 cm x 2.5-4.5 cm, coriaceous, glabrous. Inflorescence an axillary panicle, 6 cm long, few-flowered; flowers densely pilose. There is much confusion around Cinnamomum culitlawan; only 2 poor flowering specimens and several sterile specimens are known from herbaria. Much of the information in the literature refers to other species.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim : Cinnamomum culilaban (L.) J.S. Presl, Cinnamomum culilawan (Roxb.) J.S. Presl, Laurus culitlawan L.

Cocos nucifera
Inggris : Coconut
Indonesia : kelapa

An unarmed, unbranched, pleonanthic, monoecious palm tree, with a terminal crown of leaves, up to 20-30 m in tall cultivars, 10-15 m in dwarf cultivars. Roots mostly in the top 1.5 m of soil, normally 6 m x 1 cm but in optimum soil conditions up to 30 m long. Stem cylindrical, erect, often curved or slanting, 20-40 cm in diameter but the swollen base (`bole`) up to 60 cm, light grey, becoming bare and conspicuously ringed with scars of fallen leaves. Leaves sheathing, spirally arranged, pinnate, 4.5-6(-7) m long, up to 60-70 per plant of which one half still unfolded in the central spear; petiole stout with clasping, fibrous sheath at base, about one quarter of total leaf length, grooved above, rounded beneath; leaflets 200-250, linear-lanceolate, 50-120 cm x 1.5-5 cm, single folded lengthwise at base, apex acute, regularly arranged in one plane. Inflorescence axillary, protandrous, unopened (immature) looking like a spadix within a spathe, opened (mature) about 1-2 m long, consisting of a central axis with up to 40 lateral, spirally arranged, spike-like rachillae (branches) each bearing 200-300 male flowers and only one to few female flowers near the bare basal part; male flowers 1-3 together, sessile, 0.7-1.3 cm x 0.5-0.7 cm, pale yellow, with 3 small sepals, 3 larger petals, 6 stamens in 2 whorls and a rudimentary pistil; female flowers solitary, much larger than male flowers, globose in bud, ovoid at anthesis, 2-3 cm in diameter, enveloped by 2 small scaly bracteoles, sepals and petals each 3, suborbicular, sub-equal, persistent and enlarging in fruit, pistil with large 3-locular ovary, 3 sessile triangular stigmas and 3 nectaries near ovary base. Fruit a globose, ovoid or ellipsoidal fibrous drupe, indistinctly 3-angled, 20-30 cm long, weighing up to 2.5 kg; exocarp very thin, 0.1 mm thick, smooth, green, brilliant orange, yellow to ivory-coloured when ripe, usually drying to grey-brown in old fruits; mesocarp fibrous, 4-8 cm thick, pale brown; endocarp (shell, together with its contents called the `nut` of commerce) ovoid, 10-15 cm in diameter, 3-6 mm thick, hard, stony, dark brown, indistinctly 3-angled with 3 longitudinal ridges and 3 large, slightly sunken pores (`eyes`) at basal end, each with an operculum. Seed only 1, very large, with a thin brown testa closely appressed to endocarp and adhering firmly to endosperm (`meat`) which is firm, 1-2 cm thick, white, oily; at basal end in endosperm a small peglike embryo 0.5-1 cm long is embedded (under one of the endocarp pores); in centre of seed is a large central cavity, partially filled with coconut water which is completely absorbed 6 months after harvesting.
Kategori : Biofuel
Sinonim : Cocos nana Griff. (1851).

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